They Say/I SayFive (What are “voicemarkers” and how does identifying them help us as communicators? Are “voice markers” the same things as “signal phrases”?)Western Oregon University: Voice MarkersIncludes egs in APA and MLA stylesCorbett Lecture, Arrangement & MetadiscourseNordquist on MetadiscourseRichard Nordquist, RefutationThey Say/I SaySix (Which of the FiveParts of Discourse from classical rhetoric does this call to mind? How can “planting a naysayer” improve your credibility? What are some of thepotential problems with failing to include a naysayer?)They Say/I SaySeven (Why should you consider the questions “So what?”and “Who cares?”)How will you address the critical question of why your argument matters?How do you “offer a clear claim” in your writing, and how do your frame your claim in response to what someone else has said?Writing Advice:Purdue Owl: Point of View and VoicePurdue Owl: Tone in Business WritingUNC Chapel Hill OWL Passive VoiceTip from Purdue Owl: Point of View and VoiceWhen writing in APA Style, you can use the first person point of view when discussing your research steps ("I studied ...") and when referring to yourself and your co-authors ("We examined the literature ..."). Use first person to discuss research steps rather than anthropomorphising the work. For example, a study cannot "control" or "interpret"; you and your co-authors, however, can.In general, you should foreground the research and not the researchers ("The results indicate ... "). Avoid using the editorial "we"; if you use "we" in your writing, be sure that "we" refers to you and your fellow researchers.It is a common misconception that foregrounding the research requires using the passive voice ("Experiments have been conducted ..."). This is inaccurate. Rather, you would use pronouns in place of "experiments" ("We conducted experiments ...").APA Style encourages using the active voice ("We interpreted the results ..."). The active voice is particularly important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the actionshould be clearly identified (e.g. "We interviewed ..." vs. "The participants responded ...").Teaching Tolerance: Introduction to RefutationDiscussion 7.1 refutation exerciseSelect one of the sources from your "Expert Interview and Literature Review" that represents an "opposing view" and follow thefour-step template in "Teaching Tolerance: Introduction to Refutation," writing one or two sentences to address each step.The guide may be found here:publication/civil-discourse- classroom/introduction- refutationDiscussion Board 7.2: Read “Day 4 Find the story” in Matthew Stibbe’s 30 Days to Better Business Writing and “Day 9: Write like a human being.” Stibbe encourages us to write conversationally, picture a human reader, interview yourself, use your sense of humor, embrace the exclamation mark, use everyday metaphors, include a sense of person, place ortime. Would you dare accept this advice?