Decrease edema (swelling), muscle spasms, hematoma and contusions Formation of stronger, more organized connective tissue Local vasodilation Phonophoresis- drive medication through skin o Electrical stimulation
Flow of electrons between two points Gate control theory for pain management Nerves have a threshold for depolarization Amplitude for depolarization Subsensory-don’t feel it Sensory- feel it Motor- muscle contracts Noxious- pain Electrode set-up Application Pain control: Premod (2pads), Interferential (4 pads), TENS Muscle Reeducation: Russian Muscle Pump to decrease fluid: Biphasic To drive medication through the skin: iontophoresis (electronically) o Mechanical modalities Application of energy through manual techniques or manipulation of tissue with various tools Specific certifications or license Examples Massage, Intermittent Compression (Recovery Boots), Traction, muscle energy, joint mobilization, graston, ASTYM, cupping, active release therapy, deep muscle stimulator (DMS) or theragun Pharmacology Study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties and effects Drug- Chemical agent used in the prevention, treatment or diagnosis of a disease Administering drugs- provide a single dose of medication for immediate use Dispensing drugs- provide a drug in a quantity sufficient for multiple doses Efficacy- ability to produce the intended effects Placebo- pill or procedure with no physical benefit but given for psychological reason Potency- dose of drug that is required to produce therapeutic effect Side effect- drug will achieve the desired effect but will affect body in other ways Contraindication- reason not to use a drug Synergistic effect- when two drugs are given together overall yield is greater than when alone Interaction- reaction of a drug to something else that yields undesired effect Tolerance- drug is no longer to give therapeutic action at previous dosage and must therefore be increased Addiction- body produces physical and psychological needs/craving for drug Half-life- rate at which a drug disappears from the body through metabolism and/or excretion OTC (over the counter) medication o ATCs can administer OTC medications o Single dose o Packing with label o Storage (locked; original packaging) o Expiration dates o OTC use and minors- need parent permission o Documentation
Internal administration o Inhalation- respiratory tract through vapor, oxygen and aroma o Intradermal- injection into skin o Subcutaneous- injection under the skin o Intramuscular- injection into muscle o Intraspinal- injection into space surrounding the spinal cord o Intravenous- injection into vein o Oral- swallowed by mouth o Sublingual/Buccal- dissolve under tongue o Rectal- absorbed by mucous membrane of rectum External administration o Inunctions- rubbed into skin o Ointment- Oil, petroleum jelly or lanolin combined with meds rubbed on skin o
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- Fall '08
- The Bible, Injury, muscle spasms, Open injury- injury