Instruction cycle aka machine cycle series of events

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26. Instruction Cycle – aka (Machine Cycle) - series of events in a set order, when the processor retrieves instructions from storage and executes – 4 basic functions - FETCH, DECODE, EXECUTE ANDS STORE – basic operations controlled by the CPU control unit 27. Fragmentation – when stored files are scattered on the hard drive, slows down file retrieval 28. Defragmentation Utility – files are rearranged in contiguous clusters, improve disk performance 29. Disk Scanner Software – detects and corrects common problems on hard disks, floppies and CD. Also removes unnecessary (temp files) 30. Compression – removing repetitive elements of a file to require less storage space and less time to transmit 31. Decompression – used to restore file to original condition before compression 32. Zipped – multiple files consolidated into one file 33. Dual Core Processor – a single chip containing the circuits of 2 microprocessors 34. Quad Core Processor – a single chip containing the circuits of 4 microprocessors, must have the correct operating system to support 35. Benchmarks – test run by labs to compare overall speed, published on web to compare the performance of various microprocessors 36. Over clocking – technique to increase speed of computer components such as motherboards, memory, processors, graphic cards, popular with gamers, can be dangerous - may overheat and catch fire 37. One Millisecond – is one thousandth of a second. To convert seconds into milliseconds multiple by 1000 (5 sec = 5,000 milliseconds) - how access times for storage devices are measured 38. BIOS (basic Input/Output System) – allows the computer to interpret keyboard commands and display on the monitor, contained in ROM that tells the computer to find the operating system and load it into RAM 39. Platform – the operating system and processor model of the computer. (i.e.: Apple Macintosh, Windows and PC Platforms) 40. Motherboard – main circuit board of the computer – contains CPU and memory chips, connections to keyboard, mouse, and printer 41. Avatars – computer depictions of humans often found in computer games and training software 42. Downloading – transferring data from a remote computer to a local computer
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43. POS (point of sale) terminals – computer-based devices and systems that have replaced the CASH REGISTER 44. Micropayments – electronic payments for internet transactions as small as .25 (ex: Apple iTunes) 45. Cyberspace – web, chat rooms, blogs, member based service, ATM , wired and wireless communication 46. Internet – worldwide computer network that connects hundreds of smaller networks 47. Supercomputers – most expensive and fastest computers available (have thousands of processors and process data at several trillion calculations per second) 48. Microcomputers – personal computers (desktops, towers, laptops and handheld computers) 49. Microcontrollers – embedded computers, small specialized microprocessors, cell phones, microwaves, MP3 players, digital cameras, household appliances 50. Embedded System – any electronic system that uses a CPU but is not a general purpose computer (i.e.:
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