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Treatment treat causative factors offer supportive

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Treatment:  treat causative factors; offer supportive care, and positive pressure  mechanical ventilation Pulmonary Embolus - blood clot in the pulmonary artery it all depends on how big the clot is when you know if it’s big enough then it’s cause chest pain, dyspnea, and and Tachypnea- if it completely blocks off the whole lung they die- most common place in the blood clot is in the lung (DVT – deep vein thrombosis) stop if from happening by ambulating patient Pulmonary Embolus Blood clot or mass obstructs pulmonary artery Most originate from deep vein thromboses in legs Signs & Symptoms Small emboli- transient chest pain, cough, dyspnea Larger emboli- pleural chest pain with coughing; sudden Tachypnea and  dyspnea Later: Hemoptysis and fever Hypoxia: anxious, restless, pallor, tachycardia Massive emboli- crushing chest pain, low BP, rapid weak pulse, loss of  consciousness Diagnosis:  X-ray, lung scans, MRI, pulmonary angiography Prevention:  health teaching before surgery, anti-embolic stockings & exercise, and  use of anticoagulant drugs Treatment:  prolonged bed rest and compression stockings, surgically inserted filter  into vena cava, heparin, or mechanical ventilation and embolectomy Three things that make a client at risk for blood clots in legs : blood flow slowing down resulting in clotting (immobility), a disorder that causes the blood to be sludge, or if you’re extremely dehydrated and if you have an injury to your endothelium like a thrombus or a bruise (triage of blood clots) Flail chest : two or more fractures on three or more broken ribs so when you inhale the broken section moves inward when you exhale it goes backwards- if it’s big enough than it can cause hypoxia Expansion disorder: Flail Chest Two or more fractures on three or more ribs During inspiration:  flail or broken section moves inward not outward thus  prevention expansion of the affected lung During expiration:  unstable flail section is pushed outward; large flail section  causes the paradoxical rib to move in a way, which it alters, airflow during 
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expiration -Hypoxia results from the limited expansion and decreased inspiratory volume Pneumothorax : air in the pleural space that interrupts the negative pressure and causes the lung to collapse on that side Closed- if your COPD patient has a bleb and it blows allowing air to collect Clear up on it’s own if it’s small- young skinny men usually have these If you have an open pneumothorax its from a puncture of the outside atmosphere with a sucking chest wound- you will have to have a chest tube Tension pneumothorax- air entering through an opening in the chest wall and parietal pleural or from a tear in the lung- every time you inhale air comes in and it wont come out it completely collapse the lung – this is most serious- you will see a mediastinal shift and the trachea goes to the unaffected side Pneumothorax
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