Intermediate or ambiguous sexual development1 in 100 children born with some degree of sexual ambiguity1 in 2000: ambiguity is large enough to make gender assignment difficultSex is determined by sex chromosomes & circulating androgens during prenatal developmentAlterations in those -> alterations in sexual developmentCompare human sexual orientation and gender identity.Sexual orientation: Prenatal AndrogensBrain anatomy
3rdinterstitial nucleus of CajalIntersex conditionsCongenital adrenal hyperplasiaIncreased androgens during critical period associated with homosexuality in femalesAndrogen insensitivity syndromeDecreased androgenic action during critical period associated with homosexuality in malesMaternal stressStress hormones cross placenta and antagonize effects of testosterone on developing brainGender IdentityBed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST): nucleus embedded in axons connecting amygdala with hypothalamusWhat happens during puberty? Are the effects organizational, activational, or both? What is the role of sex-limiting genes?For sexual development of body, you should be able to describe thesteps starting with SRY gene being turned on. Understand what happens in females as well.What is the aromatization hypothesis?
Understand the studies in rats where testosterone levels or estrogenlevels were manipulated at birth and/or in adulthood. When is testosterone acting organizationally and when it is activational?What happens during the critical period of development constitutes the organizational (developmental) effects of hormones.Describe the menstrual cycle.