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resulting from carryover effects. With counterbalancing, subjects are randomly assigned to a specific sequencing of treatment conditions. This approach distributes the carryover effects equally throughout all the conditions of the study, thus canceling them out. The original, or classic,experimental design, is still the most commonly used experimental design. In this design, subjects are randomly assigned to treatment or control groups, and an intervention is enacted upon them by the researcher.DIF:Cognitive Level: AnalysisREF:Page 22615.A study’s hypothesis that a new surgical approach produces safer outcomes in immunosuppressed patients is tested in a fourteen-site research study across the United States. Subjects at all sites are randomly selected and randomly assigned to experimental versus control groups. What study design is used in this research project?DIF:Cognitive Level: AnalysisREF:Page 23116.Methodological designs are used to develop the validity and reliability of instruments to measure constructs used as variables in research. The process is lengthy and complex. The average length of researcher time required to develop a research tool to the point of appropriate use in a study is five years. Methodological studies include assessment of content validity, evaluation of the conceptual structure of a scale, construct validity, and assessment of reliability. A researcher is developing a toolto measure pre-delinquent behaviors in pre-adolescence. He has already reviewed the literature, gathered qualitative data from experts, pilot-tested hundreds of pre-delinquent preadolescents, and analyzed the findings. It is clear that the tool actually measures what it is supposed to measure. This reflects the tool’s