• Medium – choosing the mode of transmission of a message. • Decoding – the act of interpreting a message. • Noise – potential interference with the transmission or decoding of a message. 8
• Verbal vs. non-verbal communication (pp. 304-06). • Verbal Communication: language used to convey meaning; both oral and written communication • Nonverbal Communication: nonverbal actions and behaviors to send significant messages • Lean vs. media rich communication (pp. 306-07). • Media richness: different media are classified as rich or lean based on their capacity to facilitate shared meaning • Rich media: personal; multiple cues to aid in decoding; immediate feedback; face to face • Lean media: impersonal; few cues to aid in decoding; delayed feedback; emails/memos • Direction of communication within organizations (i.e., downward, upward, lateral) (pp. 307-08). • Downward communication : sent from higher organizational levels to lower levels. (i.e. goals, objectives, directions, decisions, feedbacks) • Upward communication : sent from lower organizational levels to higher levels. (i.e information, questions, suggestions, problems, requests for clarification) • Lateral communication: sent across essentially equivalent levels of an organization. (information (formal or informal) for joint problem solving) • Difference between formal and informal channels of communication (pp. 308-310). • Formal Channels • Specify individuals responsible for tasks • Specify individuals responsible for communicating information above and below them • Indicate persons to whom work-related messages should be sent • Informal channels • Tend to operate laterally more than vertically • Move information quite rapidly • Carry both work-related and non-work information • Communication networks (p. 311) • Barriers to communication (pp. 312-318) • Interpersonal: selective perception; frame of reference; individual differences; emotion; language; nonverbal cues 9
• Affects communication between individual or groups • Organizational: hierarchical; functional • Affects communication between individual and/or groups within an organization/different organization • Communication & negotiation (p. 320-23). • Negotiation: process of conferring to arrive at an agreement between different parties, each with their own interests and preferences • Day-to-day activities of the manager’s organizational unit • Part of a formally appointed negotiating team representing unit or organization • Stages- (1) planning and preparation, (2) relationship building between negotiating parties, (3) information exchange, (4) persuasion attempts, (5) concessions/agreement Chapter 12- Individual & Group Decision Making • Difference between decision making, formulation, and solution • Decision-making: a process of specifying the nature of a particular problem or opportunity and selecting among available alternatives to solve a problem or capture an opportunity.
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