-Different cultures have different moral codes, has seemed to be the key to understanding morality.
-Apartheid is a rigidly racist system. Eskimos are nomadic people because they are unable to farm, girls are more readily disposed of because, in this society the males are the primary food providers, they are the hunters, men also die more prematurely than the women -there are some moral rules that all societies will have in common, because those rules are necessary for society to exist. Such as no lying or murdering -tolerance is a virtue. Cultural relativism warns us, quite rightly about the danger of assuming that all our preferences are based on some absolute rational standard. The callatians, according to Herodotus, were “men who eat their fathers” -Cultural relativism, is based on genuine insight that many of the practices and attitudes we think so natural are really only cultural products. SECTION 2 Morality, religion and conscience To have a moral code, then, is to tend to evaluate (perhaps without even expressing it) the behavior of others and to feel guilt at certain actions when we perform them. Religon on the other hand, involves beliefs in supernatural powers that created and perhaps also control nature, the tendency to worship and pray to those supernatural forces or beings, and the presence of organizational structures and authoritative texts. -According to John Arthur, religion is necessary to provide moral motivation. SECTION 3 Kant, Mill, and the Ethics of Eco-labels -Utilitarianism is the moral doctrine that we should always act to produce the greatest possible balance of good over bad for everyone affected by our actions. -Bentham argued for the utilitarian principle that actions are right if they promote the greatest human welfare, wrong if they do not. -Bentham and Mill had different conceptions of pleasure, but they both equated it with happiness and believed that pleasure was the ultimate value. Mill thought Bentham’s concept of pleasure was to simple, for mill the utility principle must be take into consideration the relative quality of different pleasures and pains, not just their intensity and duration. Both men considered pleasure the ultimate value. -Utilitarianism in its most basic version, often called act utilitarianism, states that we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for all those affected. If its consequences bring more total good than those of any alternative course of action, then this action is the right one and the one we should perform. Thus, a utilitarian could defend Frank Furillo’s decision not to request bail, thereby coercing a confession from the suspects. - 6 points about utilitarianism….. First, when deciding which action will produce the greatest happiness, we must consider unhappiness or pain as well as happiness. Second, actions affect people to different
degrees. The utilitarian theory is not that each person votes on the basis of his or her pleasures or pain,
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- Fall '13
- Wade Singletary