Freezing point depression \u0394T f k f m c ik f m k f freezing point depression

# Freezing point depression δt f k f m c ik f m k f

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Freezing point depression ΔT f = k f m c = ik f m k f freezing point depression constant ( o Cm -1 ) m c colligative molality of solute
Exercise How much ethylene glycol must be added to your car’s cooling system along with 5.0 L of water to obtain a freezing temperature of -15 o C? Freezing point depression constant of water = -1.86 o C.m -1
Exercise List the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing freezing point (the last three are assumed to dissociate completely). (a) 0.1 m fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 (b) 0.1 m NaCl (c) 0.08 m CaCl 2 (d) 0.04 m Na 2 SO 4
Osmotic pressure Osmosis = movement of solvent through a semi permeable membrane The rate of movement of the solvent across the membrane is inversely proportional to concentration of the solute
Experimental setup of osmosis Osmosis: the rate across the membrane is lower because the solute particles block the membrane Osmotic pressure: the difference of rate moves water on one side of the U tube creating a difference of height corresponding to the osmotic pressure π
Osmotic pressure Π = M c RT = i MRT Π osmotic pressure in atm Mc colligative molarity T absolute temperature R = 0.0821 L.atm.K-1.mol-1

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