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Psychology in Action

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farsightedness (hyperopia) (p. 138) fovea (p. 138) frequency (p. 136) frequency theory (p. 143) inner ear (p. 142) middle ear (p. 142) nearsightedness (myopia) (p. 138) nerve deafness (p. 143) opponent-process theory (p. 140) outer ear (p. 142) place theory (p. 143) retina (p. 138) rods (p. 138) trichromatic theory (p. 139) wavelength (p. 136) Our Other Senses gustation (p. 146) Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 4                                            Page   123                                                                            
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kinesthesia (p. 149) olfaction (p. 146) pheromones [FARE-oh-mones] (p. 146) Understanding Perception binocular cues (p. 158) convergence (p. 159) depth perception (p. 156) extrasensory perception (ESP) (p. 162) feature detectors (p. 151) habituation (p. 152) illusion (p. 150) monocular cues (p. 158) perceptual constancy (p. 156) perceptual set (p. 161) retinal disparity (p. 159) selective attention (p. 151)    D iscussion Q uestions Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 4                                            Page   124                                                                            
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1. What would the world be like if the absolute thresholds for sensation were changed? If people could see X-rays and ultraviolet light or infrared rays and radar? If people were like bats and dolphins and could hear sounds up to 100,000 hertz? 2. What would happen if each sensory receptor (e.g., ears, eyes, skin) were receptive to every type of incoming stimuli? If a human’s eyes were also sensitive to sound waves and odor molecules, could the brain distinguish and integrate this information? 3. William James, a famous early psychologist, suggested that, if a master surgeon were to cross the auditory and optic nerves, then humans would hear lightning and see thunder. How would this be explained? 4. What explains the fact that people who are blind tend to be better adjusted psychologically and less subject to emotional difficulties than people who are deaf? 5. A famous saying goes: “We don’t see the world as it is but as we are”. Consider the kitten experiments and what you have read about the importance of perceptual schemas to make sense of the data we receive. Is it possible that we all live in “illusion” since we don’t see what we “see”, but only what we interpret? Is reality nothing more than a joint social illusion? How else would you explain the fact that children from different tribes/environments perceive the world sometimes radically different? 6. Why do defense attorneys never want the jury to see their clients in prison clothes? Before most defendants enter the courtroom they change into nice looking attire, even though most jury members have seen enough TV to be aware of this arrangement. If you were a jury
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