Module 2 Notes.docx

# Important to think about how to leverage data to make

• Notes
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Important to think about how to leverage data to make predictions but no overexpose individuals Designing Psychological Studies Correlation – statistics that represents relationship between 2 variables o You need to look at relationship between things to understand processes in world and society Richard Doll saw a correlation btwn smoking and lung cancer & stopping smoking and reduced risk of lung cancer o Good scientists who come up w/ correlations try hard to disprove it and to break it down Correlation is a number and ranges from -1 to 1 o Negative correlation – as one variable goes up, other variable goes down o Positive correlation – as one variable goes up, other variable goes up o Zero correlation – weakest correlation, no association btwn 2 things o How strong a correlation is depends on if it’s close to -1 or 1 Two things can be correlated without one thing causing the other – could be caused by a third variable o Correlation does not equal causation Khan Academy: Correlation Coefficient Intuition Correlation coefficients are trying to measure how well a linear model can describe the relationship btwn 2 variables

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o R = 1 means positive correlation & perfectly linear model o R = -1 means negative correlation & perfectly linear model o R = 0 means no correlation Lecture 3 – Methods II: Experimental Method Psychology in The News TED Talk said if you did power poses & stood like a super hero for at least 2 minutes, you would have lower stress o You perceive your own body language, your hormones change, you are more powerful Researchers tries to replicate the study but did not get the same results o Sample was 4x bigger than the original people – probably more trustworthy o Study was pre-registered – researchers laid out all analyses that they would do Couldn’t alter it afterwards to get the result that they wanted Causal Thinking and the Experiment Humans are naturally causal thinkers – we try to figure out how the world works o If we think one thing causes another, we change that things and see the response Cause and effect in an experiment are the independent variable (x) & the dependent variable (y) o Independent variable – thing that you think causes an effect o Dependent variable – effect of the variable, thing that you are measuring Manipulating the independent variable – change the independent variable & vary the levels to observe a change Control group – people who do not receive the treatment, serves as a benchmark o Control groups need to be as similar as possible to the experimental groups o Only difference is in the variable that you are interested in Observing a correlation in an experiment is different than observing a correlation in life o Experiments assign people to different groups randomly o Random assignment – important factor, key thing that makes an experiment work If there are differences in the dependent variable, you know it’s due to experimental manipulation rather than preexisting differences between
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