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So instead of being able to destroy the world ten

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deter a surprise attack by the other. So instead of being able to destroy the world ten times over, now only two (or three, or…) times! Détente was also applied to China. Nixon visited China and sent a mission there. Carter extended formal diplomatic recognition to China in 1978. Cultural and economic ties between the US and China have increased since then. D. Reagan Not everyone favored detente. Its biggest critic was Ronald Reagan who referred to the Soviet Union as the Evil Empire. Reagan's views were most reflected in his defense spending. Between the mid 1950s and 1981 defense spending was generally declining as a percent of the total budget. By 1981 when Reagan took office defense was less than 25% of the federal budget. Reagan felt the U.S. faced a window of vulnerability because the Soviet Union was getting ahead of the U.S. in military spending. He proposed the largest peacetime defense spending increase in American history, a five-year defense buildup costing $1.5 trillion. In 1983 Reagan proposed a plan for defense against missiles called the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or Star Wars, using high tech devices to create a global umbrella in space to destroy invading missiles. It would have cost billions of dollars over a decade. In Reagan’s second term, concern over huge budget deficits brought defense spending to a standstill. E. Thaw in Cold War President Bush declared foreign policy was called beyond containment, seeking to integrate the Soviet Union into the community of nations. The cold war ended spontaneously. Forces of change sparked by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev led to a staggering wave of upheaval shattering communist regimes and breaking down barriers between Eastern and Western Europe. The Soviet Union split into 15 separate nations and non-communist governments took over in Eastern Europe. Despite all its risks and uncertainties, the cold war was characterized by a stable and predictable set of relations among great powers. International relations have entered an era of improvisation as nations struggle to come up with creative responses to changes in the global balance of power. The U.S. had to reevaluate their foreign and defense policies and their role in the world. 6
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Power Among Nations F. War on Terrorism The spread of terrorism is of course, the most troublesome issue in the national security area today. Terrorism is the use of violence to demoralize and frighten a country’s population or government. Terrorism is difficult to defend against because it has the advantage of stealth and surprise. Response can take the form of improved security measures or punishing governments and organizations that engage in terrorist activities. Indeed this was the case in 1986 – Libya, 1993 – Iraq, 1998 – Afghanistan. Most dramatically, of course, this was the response after 9/11 when President Bush attacked the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and in 2003 invaded Iraq.
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