Gestalters argued that the whole that is perceived is an entity in its own right and is different from the sum of its parts.•This point is further made by demonstrations showing that the exact same features or elements can be recombined to form very different perceptual objects. •From definitions by Kohler and Kanizsa, some of the central tenets of the movement were that perception is holistic (focusing on whole objects) rather than atomistic (focusing on features or elements). There are also fundamental organizational principles (i.e. rules) by which we group visual elements in order to perceive a whole. Organizational PrinciplesKatz (1951) review 6 basic principles of organization that have emerged from the Gestalt movement:1) Principle of Experience•We tend to group and perceive objects based on our prior experience with objects in the world.•This principle may be important for the process of figure-ground segmentation, which is the perceptual organization of a scene such that one element becomes the foreground (figure) and the other elements(s) become(s) the background (ground).
Chapter 3: PerceptionPerceiving Whole Objects: Gestalt Psychology20:58oThis process is at play in the bi-stable image of the saxophone-woman, where, depending on focal point you either see a black saxophone player (figure) against a white backdrop (ground) or the white silhouette of a face (figure) against a black backdrop (ground). oPeterson and Gibson (1993) showed participants images that could be interpreted as having a figure and a ground. Because the recognizable region was both more meaningful and more familiar than the unrecognizable region, Peterson and Gibson used the concept of denotivity to capture the difference between the regions. The denotivity is the degree to which an object in meaningful land familiar to an individual. The concept of denotivity is relevant to principle of experience because, clearly, both meaning and familiarity depend on an individual’s prior experience with an object.Findings from the study suggest that that, in accord to the principle of experience, an individual’s prior experience with shapes, which determines their meaning and degree of familiarity, can influence figure-ground organization or segmentation.2) Principle of ProximityThings that are near one another are grouped together.3) Principle of ClosureThings that form closed shapes are grouped together.4) Principle of Good ContinuationThings that form continuous lines are grouped together