Both clonidine and methyldopa cross the placenta and are found in breast milk A

Both clonidine and methyldopa cross the placenta and

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Both clonidine and methyldopa cross the placenta and are found in breast milk A patient who takes clonidine or propranolol may experience rebound hypertension following withdrawal of the medication, which is exacerbated if the patient is also taking beta-adrenergic blockers Beta-adrenergic blockers interact with clonidine and methyldopa to produce potentially life-threatening hypertension if either clonidine or methyldopa is abruptly discontinued. Guanfacine- guanfacine (Tenex, Intuniv) alpha2 agonist. Extended release guanfacine with a trade name of Intuniv is approved for use in the treatment of ADHD as both an adjunct therapy or monotherapy. Guanfacine produces the least problems for patients with renal insufficiency Heart failure therapies- stage A: Patients with stage A HF are at high risk for developing HF but do not have structural heart disease or symptoms of HF. ACE inhibitors, the cornerstone of therapy for HF in all the guidelines, are recommended for patients with a history of atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or HTN and associated cardiovascular risk factors to prevent HF in these high-risk patients. Beta blockers are also recommended for stage A Stage B: Patients with structural heart disease who have not developed symptoms, also known as patients with asymptomatic LV dysfunction (ALVD). ACE inhibitors are recommended for all patients with cardiac structural abnormalities and low LVEF who have not yet developed HF. This is the stage, however, where beta blockade is added regardless of the previous HTN medication regimen. Stage C: Patients with left-ventricular dysfunction with current or prior symptoms of HF are classified as stage C. They are the first stage to have active HF symptoms. The bulk of patients with HF are at this stage. All the class I recommendations for stages A and B are also appropriate here. In addition, moderate sodium restriction (1,500 mg/day) along with daily weight monitoring are indicated to facilitate the most effective use of drugs. Combination of three to four types of drugs: ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, cardiac glycosides (digoxin), and a diuretic. Diuretics main function is to reduce preload associated with volume overload. Loop diuretics.
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Stage d: end stage. Antibiotics Penicillin agents- Beta-lactam antibiotics Resistance to penicillins is due to (1) inactivation by beta-lactamases, (2) alteration in target PBPs on the bacterial cell wall, or (3) a permeability barrier preventing penetration of the antibiotic to the target cell. Cephalosporins- beta-lactam antibiotics, structurally and chemically related to the penicillins -First-generation cephalosporins are active against gram-positive cocci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis (excluding methicillin-resistant strains), and most streptococci; however, Enterococcus species are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins. First-generation cephalosporins have limited activity against aerobic gram-negative organisms, such as E. coli, P. mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumonia.
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