• Vehicles communications with external networks will provide efficient destination routing in the context of current traffic and road conditions. • V2V communication will include presence, flow, intentions, and behavioral protocols. Vehicle communication is an emerging domain for the data gathering that has become commonplace in Toronto and the lives of its citizens: mobility data collection, which includes vehicle, foot and cyclist activity, already occurs on a large scale via smartphones. Two facts are at the heart of the policy issues related to mobility data (OECD International Transport Forum Corporate Partnership Board 2014) : • We are at the beginning of a dramatic expansion in the breadth, volume, and velocity of mobility data collection. This is generating troves of so-called “Big Data”. • Today, governments are the primary sources of the transportation-related data that they need. However as vehicle automation expands, private sector actors will potentially generate and hold the largest, most current, and most complete repositories of mobility data. These changes raise policy questions related to access, security, privacy and economic policy: • How will the City obtain access to private sector mobility data for transportation planning and management? • What should the City do, along with other levels of government and the private sector, to ensure the security of digital mobility data? • What role should the City play, along with residents, other levels of government and the private sector, in defining and enacting policies to protect the privacy of AV passengers? The City knows it has an interest in transportation data. Planning for transportation, transit, and broader issues of urban design depend on it, as do everyday functions like operations, safety, congestion, and incident management.
Driving Changes: Automated Vehicles in Toronto 41 Other levels of government may be responsible for AV data security and privacy policies, rules, and regulation. However as connected and automated vehicles evolve, the City will face such issues every day. For example: • The City may look to providers for anonymized traffic data, but ensuring anonymity may not be straightforward. • Pedestrians may object to street surveillance for navigational purposes by private sector AV providers. • The City will face new issues related to balancing law enforcement with data privacy. 6.7.1 City access to data An AV is essentially a type of robot – a machine that can sense its environment, assess and plan what to do, act on that plan, and communicate with people and other devices. In every AV, each of these activities requires innovative hardware technologies, massive data resources, advanced software algorithms, and blazing processing speeds.
- Fall '19