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your race on the form was a felony, and could be punished by up to a year in jail.5 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory7- davenport∂The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is still around, located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Now, it’s a research facility in the fields of neuroscience, plant biology, quantitative biology, and, not surprisingly, genomics. It was originally opened in 1910 by Charles Davenport, and was known as the Carnegie Institute of Washington. The Eugenics Record Office kept detailed family records that allowed field workers to trace cases of mental and physical defects through a family line. Davenport also conducted studies on the importance of other inherited traits, such as hair and eye color, hair texture, and skin pigments. In addition to physical traits, they also tried to document how chronic diseases such as hemophilia and mental disorders like schizophrenia, along with what they called “feeble-mindedness,” were passed through a family.4 The Immigrant Problem8- immigration∂Those that supported eugenics looked to immigrants as a problem variable that was introducing all sorts of new and undesirable genetic qualities into the American gene pool.Researchers at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory isolated some of the problems. For example, those with Italian blood were said to be prone to violence. As part of their research, prison and mental institution populations across the country were surveyed to find out just how many members of these populations came from what immigrant group. After outbreaks of illnesses like smallpox and cholera in New York City and immigrant-hub Ellis Island, the work of the eugenics movement began to gain credence. By 1911, they were operating hand-in-hand with the Immigration Restriction League to influence Congress and the Surgeon General to implement restrictions on immigration.3 Better Babies And Fitter Families Contests9- fitter families∂As the eugenics movement took off, state fairs across the country started holding Better Babies contests. In some respects, it made sense. Mothers were encouraged to bring their babies to fair judging contests, and in much the same way as livestock was judged, babies would be judged on things like health, weight, and size. While it also helped promote health and good child care, the “this isn’t so bad” part of this entry ends right about there. Better Babies soon evolved into Fitter Families, a contest where whole families would present judges not only with their happy, healthy babies, but with an abbreviated version of their racial pedigree. Doctors would perform examinations on all the members of the family, awarding and deducting points according to guidelines, and families were given a letter grade to show just how eugenics-friendly their family was. Winners would be rewarded with medals and trophies in these contests, which remained hugely popular throughout the 1920s.2 Pioneered By A Stanford Professor5- jordan∂The whole thing was started by a Stanford professor named David Starr Jordan. A long-time student of Charles Darwin and the ideas of natural selection and Mendelian genetics,