D1-The-Ultimate-Student’s-Guide-to-Preparing-for-the-AP-Spanish-Language-Exam-v2.pdf

For example to say i have talked to my grandmother on

Info icon This preview shows pages 39–43. Sign up to view the full content.

For example, to say “I have talked to my grandmother on the phone,” we would say: He hablado por teléfono con mi abuela. There are a few common irregulars that are useful to know on the exam: ver: visto poner: puesto hacer: hecho abrir: abierto decir: dicho volver: vuelto romper: roto ir: ido
Image of page 39

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 40 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] Preterite Tense The preterite is used to convey actions in the past, usually those that have already been completed. We’ll go into more detail in the Preterite vs. Imperfect section, but for now, let’s focus on the preterite itself. -AR verb endings -ER / -IR verb endings -amos -imos -aste -asteis -iste -isteis -aron -ió -ieron Spelling Changes Verbs ending in -car,-gar, and - zar carry changes in the ‘yo’ form of the preterite. - car ‘yo’ ending changes to -qué ; practicar: yo practiqué - gar ‘yo’ ending changes to -gué ; llegar: yo llegué - zar ‘yo’ ending changes to -cé ; empezar: yo empecé If a verb ends in -ER or -IR, and there is a vowel right before the stem, there will be a spelling change and changes in accents. The two most common verbs that follow this pattern are: Leer: Creer: leí leímos creí creímos leíste leísteis creíste creísteis leyó leyeron creyó creyeron
Image of page 40
The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 41 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] Stem Changes Stem changes will occur in -IR verbs only in the 3 rd person preterite; these will be the same stem-changers as the present tense, but the change itself may be different. Present: e to ie e to i Preterite: e to I e to I This is hard to wrap your head around, but with a few examples it’s simple. Let’s take preferir, which is an e to ie stem changer in the present. Here’s the preterite conjugation: preferí preferimos preferiste preferisteis pref i rió pref i rieron Here’s another example; servir maintains the same stem change, but only in the third person: serví servimos serviste servisteis s i rvió s i rvieron Irregulars The hardest part of the preterite tense is the irregular verbs there are a lot of them. These are common verbs that you’ll need to memorize in order to master the use of the past tense on the AP Spanish exam.
Image of page 41

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 42 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] In these verbs, the stem changes, and the accents are dropped. Tener: tuv- Estar: estuv Poder: pud- tuve tuvimos estuve estuvimos pude pudimos tuviste tuvisteis estuviste estuvisteis pudiste pudisteis tuvo tuvieron estuvo estuvieron pudo pudieron Poner: pus- Venir: vin- Ver: vi- puse pusimos vine vinimos vi vimos pusiste pusisteis viniste vinisteis viste visteis puso pusieron vino vinieron vio vieron Hacer: hic- Dar: di- Ir/Ser* hice hicimos di dimos fui fuimos hiciste hicisteis diste disteis fuiste fuisteis hizo hicieron dio dieron fue fueron Decir: dij- Traer: traj- Producir: produj- dije dijimos traje trajimos produje produjimos dijiste
Image of page 42
Image of page 43
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern