●compensatory factors○Transient buffers: factors in an individual's environment that may protect a family from stress; i.e. sudden financial improvement, periods of matrimonial harmony, and a child’s transition out of a difficult development period. ○Enduring protective factors: decrease the risk of maltreatment. Permanent conditions such as parental history of parenting and secure intimate relationships between parent figures. ●Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA): information accumulates here in maltreated children. ●Timing of maltreatment: effects physiological developments differently. *** maltreatment only occurs when potentiating factors outweigh the compensatory factors.*** ●Be able to identify the category and level of risk/protective factors (Table 37.1).■Categories: macrosystem, exosystem, microsystem, ontogenic development.■Higher levels: potentiating factors increase the likelihood of child maltreatment■Proximal levels: potentiating and compensatory factors determine the presence or absence of maltreatment within the family environment.■Concurrent risk factors in various ecological levels act to increase or decrease the likelihood that abuse will occur. ●Ex. cultural sanction of violence, community violence, low SES, loss of job, divorce, parental substance abuse, maladaptation &/or child psychopathology). ●Understand the big picture, i.e., how the model is designed to predict child maltreatment occurrence and adaptive/maladaptive outcomes.■The model provides a more contextualized approach to understanding the effectsof child maltreatment by examining multiple risk factors simultaneously. ■Model explains how transacting cultural, community and family factors, in addition to individual characteristics, exert reciprocal influences on each other and shape the course of child development. ●**CHELSEA** Jonson-Reid, M., Drake, B., & Zhou, P. (2012). Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: Individual, family, and service characteristics. Child Maltreatment, 18, 30-41.
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●How was family poverty measured? How was neighborhood poverty measured?■Family poverty: examined in 2 ways; children could be noted as low income at birth OR low income at the time of the first allegation of maltreatment■Neighborhood poverty: measured by using percentages of families on public assistance, below the poverty line, in single parent homes, in the same residencefor at least 5 years, owning their own homes and with a college degree ●What was found about the likelihood that Black vs. White children lived in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty?■Poor Black children gennerally live in economically devastated nieghborhoods while poor white children were embedded in nonpoor communities ■Black families eperience poverty about 3x as often as white families but 12x more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty ●Black children in child welfare system live in far poorer comunities than white children even when family income is taken into account ●Among the neglect reports, majority of black children came from households with history
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