3.Define oxidation and reduction reactions. 4. For each of the 4 types of biochemical molecules that you studied in A&P 1, chapter 2 describe what their roles in metabolism are. Carbohydrates - body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the body’s main energy source. Lipids - metabolized for use as a primary energy source. Proteins- some enzymes help to break down large nutrient molecules Nucleic acids- Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. 5.Which nutrient molecule is the universal energy source and is preferred by nerve cells? 6.List the steps of aerobic respiration using glucose. How many ATP molecules are made at each step? How many total? 7.List the reactants and products for: 8.Which enzyme makes the majority of ATP in human cells and where specifically is it located? 9.What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration? Provide specific details where it is used and what it reacts with. 10.What is chemiosmosis and where does it happen?
11.Define the term “final electron acceptor”; what is final electron acceptor for aerobic respiration? 12.What is the role of fermentation and how many ATPs are produced per glucose molecule? 13. Distinguish lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation: in which cells does either of these processes happen and what by-products are produced Lactic acid fermentation- the conversion of pyruvic acid that forms because of glycolysis into lactic acid, this process regenerates NAD so that glycolysis can continue. Alcohol fermentation- a process in which some sugars (as glucose) are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the action of various yeasts, molds, or bacteria on carbohydrate materials. Both are 2 fermentation pathways eukaryotic cells use to change NADH TO NAD+