Synthetic chemistry became even more important in the

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Synthetic chemistry became even more important in the development of medications to treatment mental illnesses. It first started with Opium being used in the early 1800s as a pain reliever then in the 1860s, doctors wanted a new sedative and thus used bromides to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy but the results were not substantial. During this time barbiturates were synthesized but were not used on epileptic patients until the 1910s and while it worked, it was a sedative and thus created different types of problems. Finally, in the 1930s, Dilantin was synthesized and tests found that it eliminated some cases of grand mal seizures without any sedative effects Second role of chemistry was to take over role of detection. This was shown in Feldberg’s use of the Leech test to detect acetylcholine and eventually by the 1950s there were more advanced assays for biological analysis associated with neurophysiology. Theme: Techniques in open fields (Elimination of function)
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ablation was a technique used that helped solved one case but bring new problems. An example of this was prefrontal lobotomy with the removal of the frontal lobe and while it cured mentally ill patients of erratic behavior, they exhibited symptoms of apathy, loss of motivation and mutism, notably losing their personality entirely. Hence, while this technique may have been useful for the original purpose, it stripped the patients of what made them human and brought questions of ethics in continuing the surgery. Applications of drugs. Similar to ablation, patients suffering from various diseases, like epilepsy, where given drugs to alleviate their symptoms. An example of this were the barbiturates in the 1910s that helped problems caused by epilepsy, as a sedative, it created a whole different lifestyle for the patient. Theme: Occurrence of disease suggests new ways of thinking Aphasia is an example with Broca analyzing a patient involved in an accident that rendered him unable to speak normally. The significance of this was it offered evidence into the localization debate and allowed for people to think in terms of that view in regards to the brain. Similarly, the emergence of myasthenia gravis ultimately contributed to the understanding of the synaptic junction and release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine. This helped neuroscientists understand acetylcholine and its derivatives and work done by Mary Walker and her use of physiostigmine to treat Myasthenia Gravis opened possibles of related chemicals and the overall understanding of the regulatory action on the enzyme that inhibits acetylcholine Epilepsy played a role as well with the Jackson defining it as resulting from the motor cortex, which led to the idea of the brain’s motor action being extended by Hitzig and Fritsch. Additionally, several chemicals were synthesized into to treat epileptic patients, contributing to the growing field of synthetic chemistry and its association with neurophysiology Finally, Mental illnesses contributed to new ways of thinking. Mental hospitals were becoming overcrowding in the early 1900s and the two major problems were schizophrenia and major depression. Neuroscientists aimed to explain these illnesses and also create new drugs to treat them.
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern