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use a procedure called non-probability purposivesamplingto maximize the diversity in the small sampleParticipants were identified by key informants, by researchers who worked as dancers themselves and by dancers who participated in the study; snow ball effectPARTICIPANT-OBERSERVER STUDIESParticipant-Observer Technique:A research method in which the scientist becomes part of the community to be studied and makes observations from inside the communityEXPERIEMNTSCorrelation Studies:A study in which the researcher does not manipulate variables but rather studies naturally occurring relationships (correlations) among variables. Ex. Self-reports and direct observationsExperiment: A type of research study in which one variable (the independent variable) is manipulated by the experimenter while all the other factors are held constant; the researcher can then study the effects of the independent variable on some measured variable (the dependent
Causal Inference: Reaching the conclusion that one factor actually causesor influences an outcomeCHAPTER 4: SEXUAL ANATOMYGENITAL SELF-IMAGEGenital Self-Image:Our attitudes and feelings towards our genitalsMay be affected by whether they perceive their genitals to fit with general cultural norms (too big, too small), and their sexual experiences (eg. Child sexual abuse), and by medical conditions (such as genital surgery). Ex. Men who view porn may have negative genital self-image“Toronto Trim”: Reduction of the labia and clit hoodVaginal designers is wrong…should be “vulva designers”FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANSExternal organs: Clit, the mons pubis, the inner lips, the outer lips, and the vaginal opening. Known as the “vulva” or crotch collectivelyVulva:The collective term for the external genitals of the femaleClitoris: A highly sensitive sexual organ in the female; the glans is found in front of the vaginal entrance and the rest of the clitoris extends deeper into the body -Wishbone shapeThe female clit is homologous to the male’s penis: Both develop from the same embryonic tissue-They both have corpora cavernosa, they vary in size, and they are erectile because their internal structures contains corpora cavernosa that fill with blood-No direct function in reproduction like many sexual organsMons Pubis:The fatty pad of tissue under the pubic hairOuter Lips: Rounded pads of fatty tissue lying on either side of the vaginal entrance Inner Lips:Thin folds of skin lying on either side of the vaginal entrance. They form a clitoral hoodBartholin Glands:Two tiny glands located on either side of the vaginal entranceFourchette: The place where the inner lips come together behind the vaginal opening