to entail integrative motivation because learners in ESL environments need to function in the target language community. ESL teaching in such environments is predominantly designed to help learners develop their communicative competence. On the contrary, learners in EFL contexts are often instrumentally motivated to learn English. They usually learn English either
47 because it is a school requirement or they need to pass a certain university entrance examination (Gorsuch, 2000; Li, 1998; Liao, 2000). Moreover, Ellis (1996) maintains that the role of the teacher in ESL settings is more of a facilitator since a great deal of language learning will take place outside the classroom. In contrast, the teacher in EFL contexts is regarded as the “sole provider of knowledge and experience” in terms of the target language and its culture. This is mainly due to the fact that EFL is “a cultural island” for learners and they basically depend on their teacher to learn the target language and its culture. Finally, Maple (1987) illustrates the differences between teaching EFL (TEFL) and teaching ESL (TESL) in the following table (Table 1): Table 1. Differences between TESL and TEFL (Maple, 1987, pp. 35-36) TESL TEFL Acquisition-rich environment Non-acquisition environment The teacher is usually a native speaker of English (or fully bilingual). The vast majority of teachers are non-native speakers of English. The English proficiency of these teachers varies widely – from fully bilingual to minimally functional. Students are more apt to have integrative motivation than in TEFL situations. Students are almost all totally instrumental in motivation. Most are studying English for their own needs or for pleasure. Students need English and usually perceive this need. It will be put to use immediately or in the near future for school, work, or acculturation. Most students do not see any need at all for English, at least while they are studying it although many see it as a “deferred need.” Students usually study in intensive programs (8 to 25 hours per week). Most students study only a few hours per week (2 to 4), over quite a few years.
48 Table 1 (cont.) Class size is usually small, even in public schools (rarely over 25, often only 10 to 15 students per class). Class size is usually larger, except in better private programs. In public schools, 50+ students in one class is not unusual. Teachers assume that students want to assimilate or at least to become adjusted to the society of the English-speaking country. Teachers know that students do not want to become “mini-Brits” or “mini-Americans” becoming part of the L1 culture. Most ELT texts are written with the ESL market in mind, therefore containing material and skills development for survival in the US or UK.
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