to prevent or deter seafarers from gaining employment. Also it supports the idea that strict laws and regulations should be enforced, in order to ensure that no fees or other charges for recruitment are disbursed directly or indirectly, in whole or in part by the seafarers. 4. MANNING AND OUTSOURCING MODELS The knowledge of the maritime labour supply chain management and the role of all stakeholders can provide the basis for the effective management of maritime labour. Manning costs are considered as an important part of a ship’s running expenses, representing the 33%-50% of the operational cost (Willingale 1998). The significance of crew costs varies with different types of shipping operation (Sambracos and Tsiaparikou 2001). One should take into consideration that in the tramp shipping industry the level of running expenses makes the reduction of manning costs, the basic way of achieving savings. The globalized character of the seagoing labour market offers the advantage of being able to hire the best from any nationality and the most cost saving. Of course, one can suppose that the economies of scale, achieved by ship operators with large requirements in sailors, assure a greater advantage. This is because large shipping companies have the economic ability to operate personnel departments and to employ manning agencies in a worldwide basis, in order to satisfy their large manpower requirements by using a variety of nationalities. Furthermore, they have the ability to create, operate and maintain a network with manning agents, trade unions and marine academies. For that reason one could also support the idea that most small ship operators collaborate with manning agencies or ship management companies for the crewing part of their small fleet. This idea is questioned and examined during this survey. As Lane (2000) argues, the global shortage of experienced and well-trained senior officers gives this sector of the labour market at least medium term stability. Moreover, the calculation as to which nationalities to select involves a trade off between price and efficiency that is cost of seafarers’ remuneration and level of performance, according to their training and education. These two features affect the decision of, not only which nationalities to hire, but also which outsourcing suppliers to choose. The company’s strategic seagoing human resource management model by which the manning strategies are defined is depicted in figure 2. Each company follows a strategic human resource management (SHRM) plan, which is strongly influenced by environmental factors, externally and internally of the shipping company. 9
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