Expansion and America’s Economic Revolution-Economy on a large scale-Profit replaces subsistence-development of new technologies-Transportation revolutions-Emergence of corporation Expansion and Economic Development-New Technology: water and steam-Infrastructure: Transportation Innovations-Era of toll roadways 1790- 1820-National road (1802,1816-1818): roadway connects Potomac to Ohio river-Canal era 1820-1840-Erie (1817-1825): Albany to Buffalo, 364 miles-By 1840: 3300 miles in the North-Railroad era post 1840-Infrastructure Debate: National or Local Job-1817 Madison Vetoes National Road FundingTelegraph-1832: Samuel Morse sent signals over electronic cable-Pulses, sent in cluster= a code (Morse code)-1843: 1st line baltimore to DC -1858: Transatlantic cable-1861: NY to San FranciscoMarket Revolution in Agriculture-Important Regional Differences-Northern Model: look to domestic Markets-Varied single crop farms, high yield for sale-New inventions:steel plow (1837), reaper(1831)-Market centers will become cities-New forms finance: commission merchant, credit, deferred payment-First industria; production- textiles in New England
-Southern Model: Rely on Foreign Markets-Few internal Market Centers-Cotton dominates-Responds to-Demand for cotton-Economy of the cotton gin (1793)-Available western landFactory system -Capital intensive production- machines do much of work-Partial to full production-Relies on new power sources-Labor clusters near machines -Wage labor system replaces piece labor system-Labor a function of time not outputLowell Mills 1820-1850-Earliest industrialization: textile manufacturing-Pool of available workers-Young, unmarried girls-Boarding house system-In loco parentisWho Should Work in the Factory?-Use of young girls offends new middle class-Replacement: migratory native born males and immigrants-Ethnic tension replaces gender tensionAmericas Emerging Working Class-Wage labor rates low in 19th: great competition for work-Increasing tension Native vs. Immigrant-1st Wave Immigration 1840-1860-Northern European -Native Backlash-Know Nothing Party 1852-1856Expansion and Economy Problems -Economic Problems: no uniform currency-Unfettered competition-Unstable money supply-Inflation-Series of “Panics”: 1819,1821,1837-Debate over role of federal government renewed in controversy over national bank (2nd)Related Developments-Great population shifts-Rural to urban, rise of the city-Seaport cities first; then river junctions; then railroad hubs-Culture shifts-New Middle class emergesRise of the Middle Class
-Defined by occupation and economic status -Office work, management level -Salaried not hourly-Defined by lifestyle behaviors and codes of conduct-Higher standard of living / “gentility”-Strict distinction of economic and social roles by genderSeparate Spheres-Male: Public world-Politics and commerce-Female: private world-Home and religion-Complimentary natures-Women: pious, pure, emotional, domestic-Men: aggressive, volatile, physical-Broad cultural sanction-Media reinforcementMass education-Separate spheres: children rise in importance-Commitment to public education-
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