General principles are the basic assumptions concepts

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General principles are the basic assumptions, concepts, and guidelines for preparing financial statements. They stem from long-used accounting practices. Specific principles are detailed rules used in reporting on business transactions and events. They usually arise from the rulings of authoritative and regulatory groups such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board or the Securities and Exchange Commission. 20. Revenue (or sales) is the amount received from selling products and services. 21. Net income (also called income, profit or earnings) equals revenues minus expenses (if revenues exceed expenses). Net income increases equity. If expenses exceed revenues, the company has a net loss. Net loss decreases equity. 22. The four basic financial statements are: income statement, statement of owner’s equity, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. 23. An income statement reports a company’s revenues and expenses along with the resulting net income or loss over a period of time. 24. Rent expense, utilities expense, administrative expenses, advertising and promotion expenses, maintenance expense, and salaries and wages expenses are some examples of business expenses. 25. The statement of owner’s equity explains the changes in equity from net income or loss, and from any owner contributions and withdrawals over a period of time. 26. The balance sheet describes a company’s financial position (types and amounts of assets, liabilities, and equity) at a point in time. 27. The statement of cash flows reports on the cash inflows and outflows from a company’s operating, investing, and financing activities. 28. Return on assets, also called return on investment, is a profitability measure that is useful in evaluating management, analyzing and forecasting profits, and planning activities. It is computed as net income divided by the average total assets. For example, if we have an average annual balance of $100 in a bank account and it earns interest of $5 for the year, then our return on assets is $5 / $100 or 5%. The return on assets is a popular measure for analysis because it allows us to compare companies of different sizes and in different industries. 29 A . Return refers to income, and risk is the uncertainty about the return we expect to make. The lower the risk of an investment, the lower the expected return. For example, savings accounts pay a low return because of the low risk of a bank not returning the principal with interest. Higher risk implies higher, but riskier, expected returns. 30 B . Organizations carry out three major activities: financing, investing, and operating. Financing provides the means used to pay for resources. Investing refers to the acquisition and disposing of resources necessary to carry out the organization’s plans. Operating activities are the actual carrying out of these plans. (Planning is the glue that connects these activities, including the organization’s ideas, goals and strategies.) 1-3
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Chapter 01 - Accounting in Business 31 B . An organization’s financing activities (liabilities and equity) pay for investing activities (assets). An organization cannot have more or less assets than its
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