When an employee tells an off-color joke and the boss does not laugh and ignores it in order to stop that kind of behaviorProviding Reinforcement in Organizations-Various strategies in providing reinforcement-Fixed-interval scheduleoProvides reinforcement at fixed intervals of time, such as regular weekly paychecks-Variable-interval scheduleoProvides reinforcement at varying intervals of time, such as occasional visits by the supervisoroMaintains a reasonably high level of effort-Fixed-ratio scheduleoProvides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors regardless of the time interval involved, such as a bonus for every fifth saleoResults in an even higher level of effort-Variable-ratio scheduleoProvide reinforcement after varying numbers of behaviors are
performed, such as the use of complements by a supervisor on an irregular basisoThe most powerful schedule in terms of maintaining desired behaviors, varies the numbers of behaviors needed for each reinforcementoThe employee is motivated to increase the frequency of desired behavior because each performance increases the probability of receiving a reward-Behavior Modification (OB Mod)oMethod for applying the basic elements of reinforcement theoryin an organizational settingoStarts by specifying behaviors that are to be increased or decreasedoThe target behaviors are then tied to specific forms or kinds of reinforcementImplications of the Reinforcement Perspectives-For reinforcement to truly be effective, managers need to use it in a manner consistent with the various types and schedules of reinforcement-EX:oIf a employees routinely shows up to work late but experiences no consequences, both that worker and other will see that it is all right to belate for workPopular Motivational StrategiesEmpowerment and Participation-Represent important methods that managers can use to enhance employee motivation-EmpowermentoThe process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority-ParticipationoThe process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own work-Empowerment is a somewhat broader concept that promote participation in a wide variety of areas, including but not limited to work itself, work context, and work environmentTechniques and Issues in Empowerment-Simple techniques, such as suggestion boxes and question-and-answer meetings, allow a certain degree of participation, for example-The basic motive has been to better capitalize on the assets andcapabilities inherent in all employees-Thus many managers today prefer the term empowerment to participation because of its more comprehensive character-One method used to empower workers is the use of work teamsoThe basic pattern is for an organization to eliminate layers fromits hierarchy, thereby becoming much more decentralized
-Empowerment will enhance organizational effectiveness only if certain conditions existo
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- Spring '08