-The laws of the Manu and other classical texts underwrote the caste system and male dominance. -Additional scriptures called the Tantras were written during the medieval period. -Europe has significantly influenced India over the past 500 years, including the 19thand 20thcenturies’ British colonization of India. -India gained its independence in 1947, in a movement partly inspired by Hindu texts and principles. -Hindus Scriptures Chronological Order: 1.Vedas2.Epics3.Puranas4.Tantras-Ghandi – leader of non-violent campaign for India independence during 1947Goals: Philosophy of Hinduism:-Basic tensions in Hindu philosophy persist throughout the history of Hinduism. -The Hindu concept of the Ultimate divine is called Brahman. -The divine within each person is called Atman. -Illusions make it difficult to perceive Brahman. -Karma- is the law of cause and effect.
-Hindus believe that individuals progress or regress spiritually over many different lifetimes.-The ultimate goal of Hinduism is MOKSHA, or liberation. -Hindu philosophy perceives grand cycles in the universe and believe we are now reaching the end of one such cycle. Summary: Philosophy of Hinduism: -Historically, Hinduism has tended to maintain a tension between world-affirming and world-denying approaches. -Brahman is the Hindu name for the ultimate reality, the only true reality, behind all appearances. Ataman is the individual counterpart for Brahman, the divine soul within each individual. Maya leads us to misperceive things, such that we see them as other than Brahman. -Good actions will be rewarded and bad actions punished through the inevitable law of the universe: the law of karma.-The ultimate goal of life is to escape the world of birth and rebirth (samsara) and attain moksha (union) with Brahman. -The life of the universe, like that of the individual, consists of incredibly long cycles of birth, death, and rebirth. -One day in the life of Brahma, called a kalpa, is equivalent to 4,320 million years on earth. The universe is born with Brahma and dies with him, only to reborn again. Brahma lives for 100 years. How many years is that in Earth years? 158 trillion years. -Dharma– world affirming-Moksha– world denying -Brahma= into English God -Maya– illusion, the ocean waves, the material from which the universe is built. -Brahman– true reality, the ocean’s depth, divine oneness-Jiva – unique to the individual – the type of soul that accumulates karma and is repeatedly reincarnated. -Atman – equivalent to Brahman-When an individual reaches moksha or liberation, the JIVA cease to exist. -We are now living in the Kaliyuga – things are getting worst Goals: Yoga:-Yoga consists of techniques directed at attaining union with Brahman-There are different types of yoga suited for different individuals-Jnana yoga is the yoga of knowledge-Karma yoga is a path of selfless action, recommended by Krishna, a Hindu god, in a famous portion of the Bhagavad-Gita.
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- Fall '19