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State (1851/1902) – wanted to apply Darwin’s theory of evolution to every aspect of human society, life involves struggle or existence as a result of which the fittest survive, supported economic practice of laissez-faire; the social meaning of Darwin’s natural world; critiques of Bourgeois civilization32. The “New Imperialism”: colonial expansion by European powers, US, Japan; pursuit of overseas territories, states focused on building territory by conquest and resources and advancing them technologically and developmentally; reflected rivalries among great powers, economic desire for new resources and markets, and “civilizing mission”; new social views of colonialism, Rudyard Kipling for example wanted US to “take up the whiteman’s burden” of bringing civilization to other people regardless of their wants; in context of late 19thc state building, nation building, and bourgeois creation of a world in its own image33. Boer War (1899-1902): Great Britain and South Africa, British wanted to unify South Africa under Imperial British rule, Boer states wanted to remain independent; British were overconfident and underprepared; Theories of Imperialism – economic capitalism, non-Marxist, Cecil Rhodes – SA political leader, from Britain, made money in SA mining
diamonds, supporter of British imperial plan, believed if SA was left to grow financially it would topple Britain from power and did not want them to gain access to a route to the sea34. Berlin Congo Conference (1885): regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during New Imperialism period; coincided with Germany’s emergence as imperial power; called for by Portugal and von Bismarck; its outcome Act is formalization of Scramble for Africa; ushered in heightened colonial activity by European powers which overrode existing African autonomy and self-governance; Political theory of Imperialism – state-building and nationalism, scramble for Africa35. World War I: Causes, Course, Consequences: Bismarck dismissed from German office so France shifts to gain power, series of crises (ie Balkans) deteriorate international relations, in the last Balkan crisis: assassination of archduke Ferdinand, the war breaks out; outbreak of “Great War” assumptions of war as adventure and renewal, failure of Enlightenment, Western Front atrocities due to new warfare technology, propaganda as instrument of social policy, new roles for women, US enters, decline of ideal of bourgeoiscivilization, foundations of late modernity; primarily European; final peace settlement made at Paris Peace Conference; cost millions of lives and did huge physical damage; brought collapse of German, Austrio-Hungarians, Russian, Ottoman empires, left many bitter and angry36.Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand: causes of WWI, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary on June 28, 1914 by Serbian nationalist and terrorist Princip – ethnic nationalism in Austria-Hungary, European balance of power (Triple Alliance vs Triple