The gesture w choreographed by Galloris review board which sought to calibrate

The gesture w choreographed by galloris review board

This preview shows page 239 - 241 out of 280 pages.

shoulder toward the cupola of Saint Peter’s.The gesture was choreographed by Gallori’s review board, which sought to calibrate the monument’s political impact between pre-existing signs of religion and the new points of secular reference in the city. Whereas the monument to Garibaldi was a national effort, some fringe figures were also added, through private initiative, to the register of Rome’s heroes. Burned at the stake by the Inquisition in 1600, Giordano Bruno was resurrected by the more radical elements of nineteenth-century Italian society—in particular the freemasons— as a forefather in the struggle for freedom of thought. However, the idea of erecting the monument in the Campo dei Fiori, the site of his execution, irked a conservative city council that continually denied a building permit until a leftist majority gained control of the city administration (that the original design had Bruno gesturing in an admonishing way at his judges had not helped gain favor with the local politicians). By 1889, after the sculptor Ettore Ferrari adjusted his design, the monument was erected, with Bruno now calmly facing in the direction of the Vatican and with reliefs on the memorial’s side emphasizing his role as a teacher and not a firebrand. 239 the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900
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The monument to Camillo Cavour was also a finely calibrated political tool in this period of uncertain church-state relations. United Italy’s first prime minister and proponent of the transfer of the capital to Rome, Cavour’s posthumous memorial stakes its ground on the right bank of the Tiber close to the Vatican—a position that brings to mind his ecclesiastical policy:“a free Church in a free State.”The project, however, was not a state initiative but that of the conservative city council of 1882, which sought to preempt the erection of any more potentially aggressive political symbol by the parliamentary majority that advocated tough policies. Sculptor Stefano Galletti kept Cavour’s arms down at his sides to emphasize the statesman’s calm deliberation. Personifications of Italy and Rome with Thought and Action accompany him, but the latter two needed to be shifted to opposite sides in the final composition so that Action might not seem to raise its sword in the direction of the Vatican. The groundbreaking and inaugural ceremonies for all of these commemorative monuments were choreographed political events: the statues of Garibaldi and Cavour were unveiled on 20 September 1895, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the breaching of the Porta Pia; the Bruno inauguration was scheduled deliberately to trump Pope Leo XIII’s tenth jubilee celebration. The monument building in the capital was repeated at a reduced scale in every town in the nation, physically establishing a new and pervasive hagiography of the unified Italian state.Through their sitings, gazes, gestures, and unique histories, each of these monuments reveals a political negotiation between various local institutions and a more general attempt to reconcile church and state to the modern era.
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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