Line managers work directly towards organizational goals. o Staff mangers advise and assist. o Authority Line- formal or legitimate authority created by organizational hierarchy. Staff- less concrete and may take a variety of forms Advise authority Compulsory advice Functional authority 7
Chapter 12 Matrix design/departmentalization Matrix Design- based on two overlapping bases of departmentalization. Multiple-command structure- any given individual reports to both a functional superior and one or more project managers. Most often used in three situations: o There is strong pressure from the environment o Large amounts of information need to be processed o There is pressure for shared resources Advantages: o They enhance flexibility o Assume a major role in decision making, team members may be more highly motivated and committed to the organization o Employees have a considerable opportunity to learn a new skill o Provides an efficient way for the organization to take full advantage of its human resources o Team members retain membership in their functional unit so they can serve as a bridge between functional unit and the team, enhancing cooperation. 8
o Gives top management a useful vehicle for decentralization. 9
Disadvantages: o Employees may be uncertain about reporting relationships o Group behavior Nothing else from this chapter since most of the material repeats concepts discussed in earlier chapters Chapter 13 Understand the concepts and uses of Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis- can help facilitate a change. Identify forces, acting both for and against a change can see where to focus efforts to remove barriers to change. List each set of forces working both for and against the change. Remove or minimize some of the forces acting against the change. Plant Closing Reasons For Closing Reasons Against Closing Need to cut costs Resistance from unions Excess capacity Concern about worker welfare Outmoded production facilities Possible future needs Know Kurt Lewin’s phases of change The Lewin Model- Kurt Lewin suggested that every change requires three steps: 1. Unfreezing- individuals who will be affected by the impeding change must be led to recognize why the change is necessary. 2. The change itself 3. Refreezing- reinforcing and supporting the change so that it becomes a part of a system. Understand why employees “resist” change according to the text, countered by Shaw- Davis lecture on this in which she stated that people do not resist change, but instead, resist loss or the potential or perception of loss People tend to resist change because: 1. Uncertainty 2. Threatened self-interests 3. Different perceptions 4. Feeling of loss Understand concepts from lecture and handout on Organization Development 10
Chapter 14 Know definitions and uses for Training/HRD, Organization Development, task analysis, needs assessment, job evaluation, and job analysis Training- Teaching operational or technical employees how to do the job for which they were hired.
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