G RENAL FUNCTION TESTS 1 Identify the purpose of the following test creatinine

G renal function tests 1 identify the purpose of the

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G. RENAL FUNCTION TESTS1. Identify the purpose of the following test: creatinine clearance. 2. Write the formula for creatinine clearance. Write the formula for adjusting for body mass. 1.Define the following pathologies and list corresponding physical and chemical tests results: a.Diabetes Mellitusi.A systemic disease that is commonly associated with glomerular kidney diseases. 3.Pronounced cellular proliferation of the glomerular
4. Chronic renal failure usually develops within 4-5 years after the onset of persistent proteinuria b. Diabetes Insipidus i. Two types: 1. Nephrogenic: failure of tubules to respond to ADH 2. Neurogenic: failure of the hypothalamus to produce ADH 3. Urine: Pale yellow, low SG, possible negative results from other tests c. Hepatitis : liver damage due to viral infection d. Obstructive Jaundice: the appearance of conjugated bilirubin in the urine due to bile duct obstruction 2. Describe the physical urine appearance, microscopic sediment, and corresponding physical and chemical tests, for the following pathologies: a. Pyelonephritis Disease Physical and Chemical Findings Microscopic Examination Acute Pyelonephritis Protein: Mild Blood: + LE: + or - (usually positive) Nitrite: + or - (usually positive) SG: normal to low Increased WBC Increased Bacteria Increased RBC Increased RTE cells Chronic Pyelonephritis Protein: Moderate LE: + or - SG: low Increased WBC Increased casts Acute Interstitial Nephritis Protein: Mild Blood: + LE: + or - Increased WBC Increased Bacteria Increased RBC Increased RTE cells b. Glomerulonephritis Disease Physical and Chemical Findings Microscopic Examination Acute Glomerulonephritis Protein: mild Blood: Positive Increased RBCs Increased WBC Increased renal tubular epithelial cells Increased Casts Chronic Glomerulonephritis Protein: Heavy Blood Positive SG: Low and fixed Increased RBC Increased WBC Increased casts Increased renal epithelial cells Nephrotic Syndrome Protein: Severe Lipiduria: oval fat bodies
Blood: Positive Increased casts Increased renal epithelial cells Increased RBCs c. Cystitis Disease Physical and Chemical Findings Microscopic Examination Cystitis Protein: Small Blood: + LE: + or - ; usually + Nitrite: + or -; usually + Increased RBCs Increased WBC Increased Bacteria Increased Transitional Epithelial cells d. Renal failure Disease Physical and Chemical Findings Microscopic Examination Acute Renal Failure Urine sodium concentration low Urine osmolality is usually greater than serum osmolality Ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine is significantly increased Microscopic examination not distinctive Chronic Renal Failure Fixed SG: 1.010 Significant proteinuria Minimal to moderate hematuria Increased RBC Increased casts, pathogenic, waxy and broad casts e. Dehydration with fever Disease Physical and Chemical Findings Microscopic Examination Infections( viral and bacterial), gastroenteritis Color : dark/dark yellow Increase in WBCs Bacteria yeasts

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