100%(6)6 out of 6 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 19 - 21 out of 21 pages.
G. RENAL FUNCTION TESTS1. Identify the purpose of the following test: creatinine clearance.2. Write the formula for creatinine clearance. Write the formula for adjusting for body mass.1.Define the following pathologies and list corresponding physical and chemical tests results: a.Diabetes Mellitusi.A systemic disease that is commonly associated with glomerular kidney diseases. 3.Pronounced cellular proliferation of the glomerular
4.Chronic renal failure usually develops within 4-5 years after the onset of persistent proteinuria b.Diabetes Insipidusi.Two types: 1.Nephrogenic: failure of tubules to respond to ADH2.Neurogenic: failure of the hypothalamus to produce ADH 3.Urine: Pale yellow, low SG, possible negative results from other tests c.Hepatitis : liver damage due to viral infection d.Obstructive Jaundice: the appearance of conjugated bilirubin in the urinedue to bile duct obstruction 2.Describe the physical urine appearance, microscopic sediment, and corresponding physical and chemical tests, for the following pathologies: a.Pyelonephritis DiseasePhysical and Chemical FindingsMicroscopic ExaminationAcute PyelonephritisProtein: Mild Blood: + LE: + or - (usually positive) Nitrite: + or - (usually positive) SG: normal to low Increased WBCIncreased Bacteria Increased RBCIncreased RTE cellsChronic PyelonephritisProtein: ModerateLE: + or - SG: low Increased WBCIncreased castsAcute Interstitial NephritisProtein: Mild Blood: + LE: + or - Increased WBCIncreased Bacteria Increased RBCIncreased RTE cellsb. GlomerulonephritisDiseasePhysical and Chemical FindingsMicroscopic ExaminationAcute Glomerulonephritis Protein: mild Blood: PositiveIncreased RBCsIncreased WBCIncreased renal tubular epithelial cellsIncreased Casts Chronic GlomerulonephritisProtein: HeavyBlood PositiveSG: Low and fixedIncreased RBCIncreased WBCIncreased castsIncreased renal epithelial cellsNephrotic SyndromeProtein: SevereLipiduria: oval fat bodies
Blood: PositiveIncreased castsIncreased renal epithelial cellsIncreased RBCsc.Cystitis DiseasePhysical and Chemical FindingsMicroscopic ExaminationCystitisProtein: SmallBlood: + LE: + or - ; usually + Nitrite: + or -; usually + Increased RBCsIncreased WBCIncreased Bacteria Increased Transitional Epithelial cellsd.Renal failureDiseasePhysical and Chemical FindingsMicroscopic ExaminationAcute Renal Failure Urine sodium concentration lowUrine osmolality is usually greater than serum osmolality Ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine is significantly increased Microscopic examination not distinctiveChronic Renal FailureFixed SG: 1.010Significant proteinuriaMinimal to moderate hematuriaIncreased RBCIncreased casts, pathogenic, waxy and broad casts e.Dehydration with feverDiseasePhysical and Chemical FindingsMicroscopic ExaminationInfections( viral and bacterial), gastroenteritisColor : dark/dark yellow Increase in WBCs Bacteriayeasts