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social and political control we don’t have (because parents of kids assigned to bad schools would just take them out)○Barbara Heyns, Summer LearningShows schooling makes a big differenceLooked at what happened to rich, middle, poor kids during summer schoolFound that poor kids progressed at the same rate as rich and middle class kids during the school year, but during the summer poor kids fall greatly behind “The Summer Slide”Deprivation, segregation, stigma of racial groups●Low ethnic caste or status position leads to socioeconomic deprivation, group segregation, and stigma of inferiority, which leads to lower test scores●Three ways Fischer et. al. believe subordination hurts performance●America looks at virtually every issue through the prism of race●Cannot understand inequality in America without addressing the roots of racial inequality and the controversy over intelligence●Individuals’ social environment explains more
●Patterns of inequality are produced by the economic and social structures of the nation and era ●Groups score unequally on tests because they are unequal in society●A racial or ethnic groups’ position in society determines its measured intelligence rather than vice versa●De facto segregation continues and the psychological effects of the past are inherited in these groups●Tobin et al.:Preschool in Three Cultures○What are the cultural differences that emerge with respect to U.S., Japan and China (20 years before and after).Preschool practices and changing economic, social and cultural continuity and change○Marked and unmarked beliefs and practices●Differing conceptions of culture (lecture) 1.Values (Parsons) ●Think of culture as values○America believes in individualism, freedom, independence●Talcott-Parsons saw differences between societies as differences in values●Problem was that the values of American society don’t explain what society will actually do○We had slavery, denial of voting rights, huge inequalities in income●Values don’t explain what people actually do●Hard to predict behavior from people’s values●Parsons saw values as core to a society, core of a personchange came through moving toward your values, although some cultures move away from their values2.Ideas (Weber)●Core ideas influence people’s behavior●Idea starts to have a life of its own●Focus on ideas means that ideas have a history, they can change; may seem true at one point and not in another●Ideas shape people’s behavior○Define the goals that are worth pursuing, ends of actionExample: people believe they could go to hell, desire for salvation was an idea that shaped behavior, then had to figure out means to use to get what they desired
○Shape the means, way people achieve things●What people think is true affects their behaviororganize our life around cause-and-effect relationships●Switchman metaphor: switchman can send train in a direction depending on which way he switches the train○Ideas don’t have to be powerful to be enormously