●Difference between parties and interest groups.○Political party:an organization that sponsors candidates for political office under the organization’s name.○Interest group:an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy; also called a lobby.■Focus on ensuring their interests are well represented in public policy.PartiesInterest Groups●Broad organizations.●Seek to control government.●Want to get members elected.●Nominate candidates for elected office.●Narrowly-focused organizations.●Seek to influence government.●Want candidates elected who support theirissues.●Cannot nominate candidates for elected office.●Functions of interest groups.○Representation:■The ANA represents the policy interest of nurses.○Participation:■Encouraging people to vote.■Grassroots lobbying.○Education:■Websites, pamphlets, emails, media outreach, ads.○Agenda building:■Bringing attention to new issues.○Program monitoring:■Checking government programs (how are laws being implemented?)●Who joins interest groups?15
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○People with higherstatusand moreeducation.●Strategies of interest groups (Political Action Committees [PACs], Direct lobbying, Grassroots lobbying, Information Campaigns,Coalition-Building).○Political Action Committees [PACs]:can either be the campaign-wing of an interest group, or can be completely independentboth pool campaign contributions from group members and donate those funds to candidates running for political office.○Direct lobbying:attempts to influence a legislator’s vote through personal contact with the legislator.○Grassroots lobbying:lobbying activities performed by rank-and-file interest group members and would-be members.○Information Campaign:an organized effort to gain public backing by bringing a group's view to public attention.○Coalition-Building:the banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying.Branches of Government:●Enumerated and Implied Powers of Congress.○SEE PAGE EIGHT (8) ABOVE ↑●Why do we have a Bicameral Congress?○To balance the interests of both the smalland the largestates.●Differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate (powers of each chamber, length of terms, electron transport chain, seeChart in the Study Guide Chapter 11).House of RepresentativesSenateNumber of members in chamber:435.100.Members in this chamber are elected torepresent what:Members represent districts of equalpopulation.Entire states.Number of members per state:Number of House Representativesdepends on population size of state.Minimum number is 1 per state.2 US Senators.Length of members’ term:2 years.6 years.
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