352 53 Can Memories be Deliberately Erased Can we weaken painful memories

352 53 can memories be deliberately erased can we

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*see info on children’s testimony pg. 352-53 Can Memories be Deliberately Erased? Can we weaken painful memories? - Norepinephrine assists with memory consolidation - Events that produce a strong sympathetic response tend to be remembered more easily and in more detail - Question: Can we use this knowledge to weaken memories associated with traumatic events? Possible Treatments for PTSD? - Beta-blocker: propranolol (Inderal, Innopran) Blocks norepinephrine action May disrupt memory consolidation if given soon after trauma May even be useful in weakening memories years after trauma Because it interferes with reconsolidation process when a memory is recalled NOTE: still in early experimental stages—efficacy unknown Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years - Most people have no recall from before age 2 - Thus, early childhood memories are likely to be: Reconstructions based on photographs and films Family stories Imagination
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- Theorized reasons for childhood amnesia: Cognitive development: cognitive factors such as immature cognitive schemas, lack of linguistic skills, and lack of a strong self-concept Social development: lack of knowledge of social conventions for encoding and reporting events Brain development: immaturity of certain brain structures, making it difficult for very young children to focus attention, encode, and remember. Chapter 12: Motivation Defining Motivation - A process within a person or animal that causes that organism to move toward a goal, or away from an unpleasant situation - Early focus: biological drives - But, cognitive factors also play a large role in humans Types of Motivation - Intrinsic Motivation is the desire to do something for its own sake, pleasure - Extrinsic Motivation is the desire to do something for external rewards, e.g. money, good grades - Reaching intrinsically motivated goals tends to lead to greater happiness and well being The Motivation of Eating - At one time, psychologists thought that being overweight was a sign of emotional disturbance - If you were overweight, it was because you: Hated your mother Feared intimacy Were trying to fill an emotional hole in your psyche Now We Know: - Hunger, weight, and eating are regulated by: The number of fat cells (fixed for a given person) A set of bodily mechanisms - Everyone has a genetically influenced basal metabolic rate (BMR, rate at which the body burns calories); declined with age; - Weight has a heritability factor (.40-.70) Set Point Theory - Changes in metabolic rate keep people close to their genetically influenced set point - May explain why dieters have a hard time keeping lost weight off; and why thin people sometimes have trouble keeping weight on Genes and Weight - Genes influence: BMR, number of fat cells, body shape, distribution of fat, and amount of brown fat (opposed to white fat); burns excess energy for heat - Recent research: cold may stimulate brown fat production
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Some Hormones Involved - Leptin, produced in adipose tissue (fat), helps the hypothalamus regulate appetite and metabolism -
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