*see info on children’s testimony pg. 352-53Can Memories be Deliberately Erased?Can we weaken painful memories?-Norepinephrine assists with memory consolidation-Events that produce a strong sympathetic response tend to be remembered more easily andin more detail-Question: Can we use this knowledge to weaken memories associated with traumatic events?Possible Treatments for PTSD?-Beta-blocker: propranolol (Inderal, Innopran)Blocks norepinephrine actionMay disrupt memory consolidation if given soon after traumaMayeven be useful in weakening memories years after traumaBecause it interferes with reconsolidation process when a memory is recalledNOTE: still in early experimental stages—efficacy unknownChildhood Amnesia: The Missing Years-Most people have no recall from before age 2-Thus, early childhood memories are likely to be:Reconstructions based on photographs and filmsFamily storiesImagination
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-Theorized reasons for childhood amnesia:Cognitive development: cognitive factors such as immature cognitive schemas, lack of linguistic skills, and lack of a strong self-conceptSocial development: lack of knowledge of social conventions for encoding and reporting eventsBrain development: immaturity of certain brain structures, making it difficult for very young children to focus attention, encode, and remember.Chapter 12: MotivationDefining Motivation-A process within a person or animal that causes that organism to move toward a goal, or away from an unpleasant situation -Early focus: biological drives -But, cognitive factors also play a large role in humansTypes of Motivation-Intrinsic Motivationis the desire to do something for its own sake, pleasure-Extrinsic Motivation is the desire to do something for external rewards, e.g. money, good grades-Reaching intrinsically motivated goals tends to lead to greater happiness and well being The Motivation of Eating-At one time, psychologists thought that being overweight was a sign of emotional disturbance-If you were overweight, it was because you:Hated your motherFeared intimacyWere trying to fill an emotional hole in your psycheNow We Know:-Hunger, weight, and eating are regulated by:The number of fat cells (fixed for a given person)A set of bodily mechanisms-Everyone has a genetically influenced basal metabolic rate (BMR, rate at which the body burns calories); declined with age; -Weight has a heritability factor (.40-.70)Set Point Theory-Changes in metabolic rate keep people close to their genetically influenced set point-May explain why dieters have a hard time keeping lost weight off; and why thin people sometimes have trouble keeping weight onGenes and Weight-Genes influence: BMR, number of fat cells, body shape, distribution of fat, and amount of brown fat (opposed to white fat); burns excess energy for heat-Recent research: cold may stimulate brown fat production
Some Hormones Involved-Leptin,produced in adipose tissue (fat), helps the hypothalamus regulate appetite and metabolism-
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