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Cause related marketing refer to the application of

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Cause-related marketing – refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics, and to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology or an activity. 3. Marketing to gay and lesbian consumers 4. Gender-based marketing Study unit 4 – Culture and subculture Culture is a selective human-made way of responding to experience, or a behavioural pattern, which means that culture influences or affects motives, brand comprehension, attitudes and consumers’ intention to use. From a consumer behaviour perspective, culture can be defined as the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct the consumer behaviour of members of a particular society. 6
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Culture refers to the complex pattern of behaviour common to members of a society; such behaviour is learned and handed down from one generation to the next and consists of norms, mores, beliefs, values, perceptions, attitudes, symbols and language. An individual’s customer behaviour functions within the framework of the cultural group to which he belongs. The decisions an individual needs to make are largely determined by the norms and behaviour patterns of his cultural group. The bounds that culture sets for behaviour are called norms. Norms are rules that specify or prohibit certain types of behaviour in certain situations and are based on or derived from cultural values. Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Violation of cultural norms results in sanctions or penalties ranging from social disapproval to banishment from the group. Customs, beliefs and values: o Customs are overt modes of behaviour that constitute culturally approved or acceptable ways of behaving in specific situations. Consist of daily or routine behaviour. o While beliefs and values are guides for behaviour, customs are usual and acceptable ways of behaving. o Beliefs consist of the great number of thought or expressed statements that reflect a person’s particular knowledge and assessment of something. o Values are also beliefs, but values differ from beliefs in that each one must meet the following criteria: 1. They are relatively few in number 2. They serve as a guide for culturally appropriate behaviour 3. They are enduring, or difficult to change 4. They are not tied to specific objects or situations 5. They are widely accepted by the members of a society. Needs and culture: o Culture exists to satisfy the needs of people in a society. It offers order, direction and guidance in all phases of human problem-solving by providing tried and trusted methods of satisfying physiological, personal and social needs. o In a cultural context, when we no longer find a product acceptable because it’s related value or custom does not adequately satisfy our needs, it must be modified.
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