Sugar cane most important item of the exchange first refineries built in

Sugar cane most important item of the exchange first

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-Sugar cane: most important item of the exchange; first refineries built in Hispanoloa Smallpox: most significant thing traded in the Columbian Exchange -*90% of indigenous people wiped out because no immunities -*passed from the old world, wiped out, no indigenous people to work -->slavery -Microbial Exchange: indigenous population decline, 1519: 25.2 million --> 1622: 1 million * Cantino World Map: important because first world map to incorporate left side of the map (Americas), not accurate but important -Alberto Cantini, 1502 Scientific Revolution: 17th century, began because the geographic boundaries are changing -a study of the relationship between man and nature (and God) -*implications: 1. workings of universe can be explained by natural causes 2. humans gain tremendous power to determine their world = confidence + optimism 3. church/clergy no longer have monopoly on knowledge = less power 4. reason and rationality used to discover natural order or universe can be applied to society (Enlightenment) Empiricism : experimentation and direct observation -key concept of Scientific Revolution -received truths: ancient Greek philosophy and the bible -the natural world as created by God can be understood through E & O Galileo Galilei: telescope in 1609; lens 30x stronger than human eye -discovered moon had mountains and craters like the earth; Heavenly bodies made of same material humans walk on day in and out -prior to this interpretation of heavens was left to the church Francis Bacon : emphasis on human mind and reason -should not rely on received truths -2 types of reasoning: 1. deductive-general to specific 2. *inductive-specifc to general (one=all, Bacon) Isaac Newton: gravity, not angels, governed movement of the planets -convinced that the entire physical world was governed by fixed, definite laws (Divinely created) ---**all these scientists cut the church out of the loop and were thus charged with heresy
Enlightenment: absolute monarchy; natural rights; owning land becomes more important -if you are unsatisfied with life, change is possible -revolution is a necessary evil if the state doesn’t protect the people -power of state is contingent; requires consent of governed-not absolute -purpose of government is the protection of natural rights (life, liberty, property) -natural rights set limits on authority of government; determined its legitimacy -loss of legitimacy of state=duty of people to overthrow/rebel -l iberty is a value more important than order -ideas spread through the invention of the printing press--get to more people -Because of unevenness of change, most of the world during this time was still concerned with survival, not these ideas John Locke: englishman; question authority -* Second Treatise of Civil Government : ideas above Every Revolution has 5 key “ingredients”: LOMID discontentment leadership mass support of people ideas opportunity Absolutism: - sovereignty/right to rule embodied in person of ruler who claims divine right -Competing powers (institutions, individuals, or groups) must be crushed

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