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-Sugar cane: most important item of the exchange; first refineries built in HispanoloaSmallpox: most significant thing traded in the Columbian Exchange-*90% of indigenous people wiped out because no immunities -*passed from the old world, wiped out, no indigenous people to work -->slavery -Microbial Exchange: indigenous population decline, 1519: 25.2 million --> 1622: 1 million*Cantino World Map: important because first world map to incorporate left side of the map (Americas), not accurate but important-Alberto Cantini, 1502Scientific Revolution: 17th century, began because the geographic boundaries are changing-a study of the relationship between man and nature (and God)-*implications: 1. workings of universe can be explained by natural causes2. humans gain tremendous power to determine their world = confidence + optimism 3. church/clergy no longer have monopoly on knowledge = less power4. reason and rationality used to discover natural order or universe can beapplied to society (Enlightenment)Empiricism: experimentation and direct observation-key concept of Scientific Revolution-received truths: ancient Greek philosophy and the bible-the natural world as created by God can be understood through E & OGalileo Galilei: telescope in 1609; lens 30x stronger than human eye-discovered moon had mountains and craters like the earth; Heavenly bodies made of same material humans walk on day in and out-prior to this interpretation of heavens was left to the church Francis Bacon: emphasis on human mind and reason-should not rely on received truths-2 types of reasoning: 1. deductive-general to specific2. *inductive-specifc to general (one=all, Bacon)Isaac Newton:gravity, not angels, governed movement of the planets-convinced that the entire physical world was governed by fixed, definite laws (Divinely created)---**all these scientists cut the church out of the loop and were thus charged with heresy
Enlightenment:absolute monarchy; natural rights; owning land becomes more important-if you are unsatisfied with life, change is possible -revolution is a necessary evil if the state doesn’t protect the people-power of state is contingent; requires consent of governed-not absolute-purpose of government is the protection of natural rights (life, liberty, property)-natural rights set limits on authority of government; determined its legitimacy-loss of legitimacy of state=duty of people to overthrow/rebel-liberty is a value more important than order-ideas spread through the invention of the printing press--get to more people-Because of unevenness of change, most of the world during this time was still concerned with survival, not these ideasJohn Locke:englishman; question authority-*Second Treatise of Civil Government: ideas aboveEvery Revolution has 5 key “ingredients”: LOMIDdiscontentmentleadershipmass support of peopleideasopportunityAbsolutism:-sovereignty/right to rule embodied in person of ruler who claims divine right -Competing powers (institutions, individuals, or groups) must be crushed