Thorndike’s Puzzle Box: Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)-Law and Effect: rewarded behaviors more likely to be repeated -B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): mores influential behaviorist, studied operant conditioningSkinner BoxHow does operant conditioning work?-Shaping: gradual process of reinforcing organism for behavior that gets closer and closerto the desired behavior
-Reinforcer: Something that comes after a behavior that increases likelihood of performing behavior again Two types of reinforcement:-Positive:desired Reinforcer given after behavior (increases future behavior) -Ex: Skinner box, food pellet. Hypothalamus Stimulation-Negative:unpleasant stimulus removed following desired behavior (increases future behavior) -Skinner box example: removal of shock -Human example: taking aspirin for headaches or clicking noise for fastening seatbelt -Primary Reinforcer: “natural” reinforces (don’t need to be learned) aid survival -Water, Food, Sleep, Sex, Air -Secondary Reinforcer: paired with primary Reinforcer becomes Reinforcer itself -Money, Grades, Animal Clickers Time of Reinforcement -More immediate = more learning, More delay = less learning Self-Control -Preference for immediate reinforcement -Often need to delay gratification 4 schedules of partial Reinforcement - continuous reinforcement fast learning - Partial reinforcement slower learning, but slower extinction Interval Schedules-Fixed interval schedule: after a set of interval time, reinforcement desired behavior-Skinner box: wait 5 min push level & get reward wait 5 min again -Humans Examples: typical students study schedule, paychecks -Slow behavior, picks up right before reinforcement -Variable interval schedule: after a changing interval of time, reinforce desired behavior -Skinner box: level press rewarded after 2 min, then 8 min, then 5min -Human Example: studying for pop quizzes -Slow but steady behavior -Fixed Ratio schedule: after a set number of desired behaviors, give reinforcement -Skinner box: push lever 10X for food -Human Example: get paid every 10 products made -Stepwise pattern of behavior -Variable Ratio Schedule: after a changing number of desired behaviors, give reinforcement -Skinner box: food pellet after 6 lever presses, then 14, then 2 -Human Example: slot machines -Highest rate of responding, most resistant extinction (don’t know when you’ll be reinforced)
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- Fall '13
- Psychology, B.F. Skinner