-poor and unpleasant working conditions -long working hours -minimum payment -employment of children -Physical punishment etc. Such harsh treatment led to antagonistic contradictions and this phase of capitalism caused the creation of labor unions. b. Later stage of capitalism This stage is marked by industrial revolution and the emergence of theories, principles and guidelines of administration. The owners now could not effectively administer or supervise their workers. This was mainly because the owners were becoming more skillful and had better knowledge of the job than the owners themselves. This made the owner to delegate the task of administration to better skilled and knowledgeable workers selected from the workforce. This
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