A urinalysis can be done to determine urine pH and the presence of crystals can help identify stone composition. A definitive diagnosis is made via noncontrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) scan. 2) Bowel obstruction occurs in newborns, the elderly, and those with recent GI surgery (Dains, et al, 2016). According to Mayo Clinic (2018), causes of intestinal obstruction may include adhesions in the abdomen that form after surgery, an inflamed intestine (Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, hernias, and colon cancer. The patient usually presents with sudden onset of crampy pain. Vomiting usually occurs early with small intestinal obstruction and late with large bowel obstruction. Obstipation occurs with a complete obstruction, but diarrhea can be present with a partial obstruction (Dains, et al, 2016). Hyperactive, high-pitched bowel sounds can be present with a small bowel obstruction. A mass may be palpable in a lower obstruction. Abdominal distention can be present. Definitive diagnosis is made with abdominal x-rays, CT scan, or MRI. 3) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) , or spastic colon, is a common disorder that is characterized by abdominal cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The patient with IBS will have a normal bowel examination and the stool will be negative for blood. If the onset of IBS is at middle age or older, if the stool is positive for blood, if there is a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, or if the patient fails to show improvement of symptoms after 6 to 8 weeks of therapy a proctosigmoidoscopy or barium enema (BE) should be considered (Dains, et al).
NURS 6512 Week 6 Assignment 6 References Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Mayo Clinic. (2018). Intestinal obstruction. Retrieved from - causes/syc-20351460 Mayo Clinic. (2017). Spastic colon: What does it mean?. Retrieved from
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