Certain life factors permit people to break laws A person has become delinquent

Certain life factors permit people to break laws a

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Certain life factors permit people to break laws § A person has become delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violations of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. § Criminal behavior is not explained by general needs and values - Drift and Delinquency o David Matza § Situational rather than learned Control theory - unless people are constrained in some way they will behave on the basis of self interest, and delinquent behavior will be pretty high - why is some peoples behavior controlled and others are not? Containment - Rekless o 4 factors: outer pulls, inner pulls, external containments, internal containments. - The Social Bond
o Will participate in delinquent behavior unless there is something to stop them from doing so o Attachment, commitment, involvement, and beliefs. CHAPTER 6 - THEORIZING ABOUT CRIME AND DELINQUENCY Critical perspective on crime - Refers to the group of theories that begins with the assumption that structures of power and oppression are the source of crime (i.e., race, class, gender, and, to some extent, age structures in society) Labelling Theory · Tannenbaum (1938) rejected the positivist supposition that delinquents are somehow different from non-delinquents and that in order to understand delinquent behaviour, it is necessary to determine what those differences are. · Argued that children engage in delinquent behaviour without knowing that others view it as delinquent or bad o The best adult response to delinquent behaviour is to do nothing. o In his view, it is the conflict that develops between a child’s play group and the community that turns play into delinquent or criminal behaviour · If children begin to resent adult interference and start to act in a defiant manner, adults will define them as bad. · Being so defined will isolate these children from the community and from other children. · In their isolated state, they will come to accept themselves as different and be encouraged to engage in more delinquent behaviour. o “The person becomes the thing he is described as being” Primary and Secondary Deviance · Lemert (1951) argued that there are two types of deviance: primary and secondary. o Primary deviance is the initial act. Anyone is potentially a “primary” deviant if he or she does things that would likely be considered deviant if they were known about by others. o Secondary deviance refers to all of the behaviours that a person develops as a result of societal responses to her or his primary deviance. · “The sequence of interaction leading to secondary deviation is roughly as follows: (1) primary deviation; (2) social penalties; (3) further primary deviation; (4) stronger penalties and rejection; (5) further deviations, perhaps with hostilities and resentment beginning to focus upon those doing the penalizing; (6) crisis reached in the tolerance quotient, expressed in formal action in the community stigmatizing of the deviant; (7) strengthening of the deviant conduct as a reaction to the stigmatizing and penalties; (8) ultimate acceptance of deviant social status and . . . the associated role.”

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