Commissions and patronage historically artists rarely

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Commissions and Patronage Historically, artists rarely undertook major artworks without a patron’s concrete commission Patron could be civic group, religious entity or private individual Guilds contributed to their city’s religious and artistic life by subsidizing the building and decoration of numerous churches and hospitals Religious groups (monastic orders) were major art patrons/ papacy important patron (pope)/ today the Vatican museums hold one of the world’s most spectacular art collections Art was commissioned for propagandistic, philanthropic or commemorative purposes Artworks were a product of a service contract – in looking at the art we must consider the patrons’ needs or wishes/ artists were asked to submit drawings or models to their patrons for approval
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Nicola Pisano, Annunciation of the Nativity, 1260
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Artist’s Names in Renaissance Italy 14 th and 15 th centuries- individuals adopted their hometowns as one of their names- Example: Nicola Pisano was from Pisa, Giulio Romano was from Rome, Leonardo da Vinci was from Vinci Artists were referred to by their given names only such as Leonardo, Giotto or Duccio Nicknames were also common- Masaccio was “Big Thomas”, Cenni di Pepo was Cimabue (meaning bull’s head) Names were not only nonstandardized but also impermanent and could be changed at will
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Giovanni Pisano, Annunciation and the Nativity, 1297 40 years after his father’s rendition of the same subject – Giovanni’s pulpit is more dynamic and figures are loosely arranged (animated, twisting and bending)/ shows more motion/ emotion = new interest in classical antiquity and naturalism
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Berlinghieri, St. Francis Altarpiece, 1235 Middle Ages – Byzantine style dominated Italian painting •Subject – St. Francis, wears clerical garb of the order he founded (Franciscans)/ displays stigmata/ flanked by angels/ panels show scenes from his life Byzantine characteristics: formal composition/ frontal pose/ halos/ lack of modeling - linear flatness/ golden background/ shallow space Panels look like Byzantine illuminated manuscripts/ panels show more emotion and activity Shows prominent role of religious orders in Italy/ Franciscan order demonstrated commitment to teaching and to alleviating suffering •Berlinghieri’s altarpiece is earliest known signed and dated representation of St. Francis
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Nave of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1246-1470 Commissioned by the Dominicans and Franciscan mendicant orders around 1246 Small oculi and marble striping along the ogival arches decorate the nave
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Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, 1280 Inspired by NATURALISM Modeled his large image on Byzantine examples (structured and symmetrical)/ also used gold to embellish What’s new: constructed deeper space (overlapping, furniture)
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Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, 1310 Influenced by Roman school of painting and his teacher, Cimabue, French Gothic sculptors and ancient Roman art Considered by some scholars are the father of Western
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  • Fall '14
  • renaissance, Siena, Madonna Enthroned

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