Fragmentation of many groups resisted removal they

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Fragmentation of many groups resisted removalThey broke apart geographically, resulting in two separate groupsThe groups include OK Cherokee Nation (forcibly and voluntaritly removed) and E Band of Cherokee (escaped and remained in NC) and OK Seminole (willingly removed and those captured by Army) and Florida Seminole (those who resisted, fled Army, and remained in Everglades)The Nullification Crisis:1829 members of Jackson admin began to divide over future of Tariff of 1828Van Buren pushed Congress to adopt higher import taxes in 1828 New tariff increased duties on raw wool, flax, molasses, hemp, and distilled spirits which assisted farmers in NVan Buren reasoned that S would vote for Jackson regardless of tariffWithout tariff the N might vote for AdamsGrumbling could be heard throughout S about “tariff of abominations”Many S thought tariffs harmed interests bc they sold their cotton on unprotected world marketS also believed tariff revenues funded gov projects that benefitted only NCalhoun quieted the protests in 1828 by suggesting that he could push Jackson to reverse tariff once in officeVan Buren’s risk and Calhoun’s promises proved effective, and S turned out for JAckson in NovAfter election, S began to demand reduction of tariffS import taxes only brought economic miseryThey worried about potential consequences for slavery if N and W banded together against SFrustrated S turned to Calhoun to help them make a reasoned argument against measureVP secretly drew up SC Exposition and ProtestHe maintained the tariff was unconstitutional bc it did not set uniform duties and it clearly
benefited one region over anotherHe suggested how states could fight objectionable fed lawsCalhoun argued that Cons was compact between sovereign states, based on Article VII indicating states, not people, would ratify docStates had a right to determine the constitutionality of fed lawsWhen a state found a law objectionable, a special state convention culd declare said law null and void within its bordersOther states had the righty to clarify law’s validity through cons amendIf one or more states still objected, they had right to secede from UnionCalhoun believed once the Exposition and Protest emerged, he could work with Jackson to reduce the tariff rates and avoid the need for nullificationVP could no have known that Eaton Affair would drive wedge between himself and presHe misread JAckson’s views on relationship with fed gov and statesFor Jackson, any talk of nullification of secession undermine the principle of the American Revolution1830 congressional discussion on sale of fed lands sharpened debate between supportes and opponents of nullificationIn assessing merits of bill covering the sale of fed land, Robert Y HAyne of SC and Webster raised issue of states rightsHayne suggested S opposition to tariff reflected a desire “to preserve, not destroy the union” from “federal dominance”

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