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Other Things to Know1.How does your textbook describe Piaget’s contribution to the study of children’s cognitive development (p. 190)? b.What were some criticisms of his theory?a.How important is language in cognitive development?
EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE – PART 1AGING THEORIES, PERCEPTION, COGNITION b.Vygotsky: children actively construct their knowledge and understandingc.Zone of Proximal Development: range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but can be learned with guidance i.teachable areaii.what a learner can do independentlyiii.what he can do w/ helpiv.what he cannot dod.Scaffolding: changing level of support of a teaching sessioni.structuring a learning situation so learning becomes easierii.give guidelines for completing the taskiii.divide into small, simpler piecesiv.ask questions to keep student focused, on track, and correct feedbacke.Mediation: adult proposes meanings and interpretations of objects and eventsi.encourages child to think about event in a certain wayii.introduces concepts of knowledge, skills, and strategiesf.Inner/Private Speech: solve problems, memorization3.Adult, post formal thought (p. 197)othinking that is reflective, relativistic and contextual; provisional; realistic; and now influenced by emotionsomight think deeply about many aspects of work, politics, relationships, etc.4.According to your text, what happens when you adults move out into the world of work(p. 196)? a.List 2 changesi.face constraints of reality that work promotesii.idealism decreases5.Perry:Dualism, Multiplicity or Relativism, Commitment in Relativism (p. 197)a.Know some things about expertise in a domain & cognitive ability. b.Dualism: either right or wrongc.Multiplicity: many views; right answers depend on contexti.Relativism: contextuald.Commitment in Relativism: what is right for YOU6.Changes in cognition in middle and late adulthood (p. 199)oFluid Intelligence: person’s ability to reason abstractly; decreases with ageoCrystalized Intelligence: person’s accumulated information and verbal skills; increases during middle to late adulthoodoCognitive Mechanics:linked to biological foundations and brain development; decline in middle and late adulthoodoCognitive Pragmatics: associated w/ experience and culture; increase in middle to late adulthood7.Bronfenbrenner: Ecological development, Micro, Meso, Macro, Exo & Chrono system.(p. 23-24)oThe Theory: development reflects the influence of several environmental systemsoMicrosystem: immediate environmentoMesosystem: interrelationships of microsystemsoExosystem: external, social settings that have indirect effectsoMacrosystem: society, world events, the planet, historical eraoChronosystem: time
EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE – PART 1AGING THEORIES, PERCEPTION, COGNITION