2.People have fewer children.3.Family members perform fewer functional tasks at home.4.Families have become more diverse in recent decades.Family types and terms-monogamy: married to 1 only -polygamy: a marriage in which one person has several spouses-nuclear family: married, monogamous couple (usually heterosexual) living with theirown kids, and no extended family members. -conjugal family: nuclear family that is also functionally independent of extended family members (makes own money).-patrilineal family: family system where wealth and power are transmitted from fathers to their sons.-matrilineal- family system where wealth and power are transmitted from mothers totheir daughters.Origins of the American Family1. Colonial America (before 1820)3 interrelated groups: American Indians, White Europeans, African Americans.European traditions dominated the legal, political and cultural landscapeAmerican Indians: -difficult to generalize across tribes.-Strong respect for elders.-Reliance on family networks for sharing resources and meeting essential needs.-Family was basis of social structure.-More matrilineal descent and gender equality.-Monogamous marriage, more political power to men.White Europeans-Marriage was necessary and practical.-Protestant doctrine enforced by gov’t and gave husbands authority over wives.-Women could not vote, hold political office, serve on juries, or have legal existence separate from their husbands.-Women were incorporated into their husbands’ citizenship. -average woman had 7 children-children contributed to the economy and survival of family; children seen as having evil impulses that needed to be controlled via discipline and work.-households included nuclear family units plus boarders or servants.African Americans-slavery led to disruption of many different cultural groups; affected family life of African Americans.-keeping a family together was difficult.
-recognition of family lineages difficult bc lack of family names.-Most African Americans were excluded from emerging modern family practices until after the end of the slave system. 2. Emerging Modern Family (1820-1900)The market and state emerged as a dominant features of modern society.3. The Modern Family4. New Family Diversity9/6 no class9/8/16 ThursdayNew Family Diversity (1960’s-Present): Distribution of Household Types“Second Demographic Transition”-Later Marriage; rise in cohabitation and single living; rise in divorce.-Later fertility, less fertility within marriage; rising extra-marital fertility; higher childlessness.-More education; more women in the labor force-marriage becoming more emotional and less essential (deinstitutionalized)- elevated to a true love relationship with expectations of love and affection.