GV101 Week 2.docx

Social trust facilitates cooperation among the

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behaviour, but without these attitudes of trust, such institutions may mean little. Social trust facilitates cooperation among the citizens in these nations and without it democratic politics is impossible.” Robert Putnam (1993) Making Democracy Work “[Some countries] are blessed with vibrant networks and norms of civic engagement, while others are cursed with vertically structured politics … and a culture of distrust. These differences in civic life turn out to play a key role in explaining institutional success.” Samuel Huntington (1993) Clash of Civilizations “the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. … The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics.” The hypotheses Hypothesis 1 (Classic Cultural Theory) – evidence 1 Democracy is more common in some cultures (e.g. western) – which support democratic values, such as individual liberty, freedom of expression, equality – than in others (e.g. Islam, Confucianism). Hypothesis 2 (Cultural Modernization Theory) – evidence 2 Economic development does not directly cause democracy, but economic development does lead to cultural change (e.g. civic culture), which in turn leads to democracy.
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3) Strategic bargain – the argument Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson (2006) Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy “The elites would like to prevent [revolution], and they can do so by making a credible commitment to pro-majority policies. However, promises of such policies within the existing political system are often non-credible. To make them credible, they need to transfer political power to the majority, which is what democratization achieves.”
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