In this context green textile innovation is a broad

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In this context, green textile innovation is a broad area of innovation, ranging from replacing chemical dyes with organic/benign dyes in textile production, through to more radical changes such as the emerging fi eld of green chemistry that seeks to utilize naturally occurring processes in place of traditional industrial processes. Textile production utilizes diverse chemicals, dyes, and fi nishes at all stages which are harmful to the environment and health, and its globally dispersed nature makes matter worse by posing a big challenge in stipulating requirements and regulations. LAUNCH Nordic is an initiative taken by Nordic countries to promote use of environmentally friendly materials (based on cleaner manufacturing and green chemistry) in fashion and textiles as one of their focus (LAUNCH Nordic 2016 ). Under this theme, the initiative focusses on innovations in: (i) optimizing existing technologies and approaches within the closed-loop manufacturing, green chemistry, and recycling/reuse; (ii) reducing the toxic/chemical impact at various points in the value chain, e.g., through use of green chemistry; and (iii) exchanging manufacturing information and data (LAUNCH Nordic 2016 ). For instance, under this initiative, Novozymes in Denmark is exploring new uses for enzymes in textile production which can reduce a textile s environmental impact and improve the durability of fi nished products, resulting in reduction of consumption of water, energy, and chemicals (Norden 2015 ). The initiative also provides scope for new collaborations between LAUNCH global partners and multi-nationals worldwide, e.g., IKEA, Novozymes, and Kvadrat to drive system innovation and help scale sustainable innovations in materials (LAUNCH Nordic 2016 ). Another aspect of 118 R. Pal
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greening the manufacturing process is by operating without emissions and waste. Zero Emission Research Initiatives (ZERI) is a research initiative proposed to cascade nutrients, materials, and energy so that our production and consumption systems are designed in such a way (ZERI 2013 ). On similar lines, Detox campaign (launched in 2011) mobilizes global clothing brands and their suppliers to eliminate toxic water pollution and release of hazardous chemicals from their supply chains and products, and presently includes 19 international fashion companies, e.g., Nike, H&M, and Zara. Overall, the fundamental principles of this campaign are as fol- lows: (i) zero discharge of all hazardous chemicals (wastes and production emis- sions or later losses from the fi nal product), (ii) prevention and precautionary actions toward the elimination of hazardous at source through substitution with sustainable alternatives or even product redesign, and (iii) full transparency by brands and their supply chains and public disclosure of information about haz- ardous chemicals used and discharged (GreenPeace 2016 ). Detox Outdoor initiative is a similar open campaign taken by Greenpeace to challenge big outdoor brands to eliminate per- and poly fl uorinated chemicals (PFCs) and other hazardous chemicals
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