Sampler vent ports 379 hammers anvils rods and energy

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Sampler Vent Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Hammers, Anvils, Rods, and Energy Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Safety Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Donut Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Rope and Cathead Operations . . . . . . . . . . 381 Automatic Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Spooling Winch Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Drill Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
FIELD MANUAL xvi Page Chapter 22 Penetration Testing (continued) Equipment and Mechanical Variables (continued) Drill Rod Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 How Good is the SPT Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Becker-Hammer Penetration Testing for Gravelly Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Role of BPT in Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Harder-Seed Method of BPT Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Testing for the Harder-Seed Method of Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Sy Method of BPT Interpretation . . . . . . . 392 Testing for the Sy Method of Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Discussion of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Contracting for Becker Drilling Services . 394 Cone Penetration Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Test History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . 398 Data Obtainable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Chapter 23 Handling and Transporting Rock and Soil Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Sample Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
CONTENTS xvii Page Chapter 23 Handling and Transporting Rock and Soil Samples (continued) Storage Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Shipping Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Core Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Identification of Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Transportation Requirements and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Upright Handling and Shipping of Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Storage Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Recommended Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Chapter 24 Care, Retention, and Disposal of Drill Core, Soil, and Rock Samples . . . . . 431 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Location of Storage Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 Storage During Investigations . . . . . . . . . . 433 Storage During Construction . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Storage During Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Conditions of Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Length of Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Proposed Structures or Projects . . . . . . . . . 435 Design Investigations and Completed Structures or Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Disposal of Core and Samples . . . . . . . . . . 437 Retention of Rock Core and Samples . . . . . . 438 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
FIELD MANUAL xviii Page Chapter 25 Global Positioning System . . . 439 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 GPS System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 GPS Basic Operating Concepts . . . . . . . . . 440 Navigation (NAV) Message . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 GPS Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Dilution of Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Satellite Position and Clock Errors . . . . . . 445 Atmospheric Delay of Satellite Signals . . . 445 Selective Availability and Anti-Spoofing . 446 GPS Signal Obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Multipath Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Differential GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Quality of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Satellite Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Ideal Satellite Constellation . . . . . . . . . . . 450 DOP Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Quality Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 User Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . 456 User Equivalent Range Error . . . . . . . . . . 457 Space and Control Segment Errors . . . . . . 458 Wide Area GPS Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . 460 Atmospheric Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 User Equipment Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1 Error Source Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Satellite Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Datums and Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . 463
CONTENTS xix APPENDICES Appendix Page A Abbreviations and Acronyms Commonly Used in Bureau of Reclamation Engineering Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 B Nomograph Relating the Density of an Explosive in G/cc, the Diameter of the Explosive in Inches, and the Pounds of Explosive per Lineal Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 C Chart Showing Ripability Versus Seismic Velocity for a D11N Bulldozer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 D Charts Showing Weight of Materials Required for Typical Laboratory Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 E Useful Conversion Factors Metric and English Units (Inch-Pound) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
FIELD MANUAL xx TABLES Table Page 13-1 Determining moduli and ratios for typical velocities of earth materials from refraction surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 13-2 Typical velocities of earth materials . . . 7 13-3

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