Ilya Mishkin (Minsk Ghetto) supported the resistance and helped smuggle out 7,500 Jews to the forests Chaim Rumkowski (Lodz Ghetto) Developed a policy of “rescue through labor,” running the ghetto with an iron fist o Flamboyantly rode in a horse-drawn carriage o Printed Ghetto money with his picture on it o 6 months before liberation there were 50,000 people still in Lodz ghetto but were all sent to other concentration camps Judenrat leaders were being asked to turn people over to be resettled in the east Choiceless Choices Armed resistance o Abba Kovner (Resistance Fighter and Poet) Zionist youth leader Played key role in founding of the united Partisan Organization
Commander of Resistance during liquidation of Vilna Ghetto Directed escape of the Vilna underground into the forests Commanded Jewish partisan unit in the Rudninkai Forest After war helped organize underground immigration to Palestine Was one of the first to piece together the the Final Solution o Major armed resistance was not started until the third Stage of the Holocaust o Warsaw Ghetto Uprising April 19-May 16 (1943) First mass revolt to Nazi-occupied Europe Uprising breaks out in response to rumors that Germans Planned to liquidate ghetto Involved more than 2000 SS soldiers and police units under tank cover Jews hid in bunkers, fighters fought from attics Although Nazis subdued the ghetto within the first week, second stage of fighting lasted weeks o Why many couldn’t resist There was no organization No order No connection or central authority to fight against the Nazis How have scholars defined and characterized jewish resistance? What do you see as the larger significance of the debate about resistance for understanding the Holocaust?
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