(9 ad H3) Men tended to be more initiative and critical in discourse. This hypothesis can only partially be confirmed and needs more detailed investigation. The average values for men with respect to “question” (column 2 in Tab. 3) and “thesis” (column 3) are slightly higher and with respect to “critique” (column 6) significantly higher compared to the ones for women, whereas the values for women with respect to “new theme” are significantly higher than the corresponding ones for men. (10 ad H4) The gender composition in virtual group work has an effect on the performance of the virtual work. This hypothesis could not be fully tested so far. Data in the discussion of H1 which show that men and women are in general more active in those environments where their sex is dominant. Other results support the interpretation that both female-dominated virtual groups and male-dominated groups achieved better results (the female groups with slightly higher ratings) compared to gender-mixed groups. 5. Conclusion – more questions than answers What does it mean if there are gender-specific differences? Do we accept these differences, although we know that they are (widely) socially and culturally constructed and that they can be changed if the environment changes, for instance via gender mainstreaming politics? Is it desirable for men to be encouraged to reduce the extent of critical and dominating discourse behavior and to take on more service-oriented roles in group work rather than aspiring to roles which give immediate reward in the public? Should women be encouraged to be more aggressive and self-confident in their communicative style and to take on roles which make more activity in the public necessary?