MANNING_STRATEGIES_IN_GREEK-OWNED_SHIPPI.pdf

Chartering strategy companys social responsibility

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-Chartering Strategy -Company's Social Responsibility -Size of fleet -Age of fleet -Vessels' Technology COMPANY HR ACTIVITIES partially/ fully HR ALTERNATIVES single nation/ multination native nationality/ foreigner SHRM Figure 2. Strategic Seagoing Human Resource Management Model In order to cover the need for manpower, the shipping company searches all the alternative options. The alternatives that the company has, regarding the seagoing personnel include all nationalities, so the native nation of the ship owner/ manager, as all foreign nations. The crew manager (company or manning agent) can choose between a single national crew, and a multinational one. For instance, in the case of the Greek-owned shipping, the manning alternatives that exist are: Only Greeks (GR1), Mixed Crew of Greeks and Foreigners of One nationality (GRF1), Mixed Crew of Greeks and Foreigners of many nationalities (GRF), Only One Foreign Nationality (F1), and Mixed Crew of many foreign nationalities, but Greeks (F). At this point, the range of seagoing human resource management functions that the company is willing to undertake or develop is decided. As human resource activities, are defined the choice of crew synthesis or nationality mix, the selection and casting of seafarers, recruitment, incorporation, training and education of seafarers, evaluation and wages. The next step includes decision on the organisation of these activities, that is, whether they will be organised in-house or assigned either partially or fully to a third party. The relationship between the company and the third party defines the type of outsourcing, which, in accordance with Arnold’s (2000) model can be internal outsourcing or external outsourcing (also known as ‘in- outsourcing’ and ‘out-outsourcing’, respectively). The type of relation defines the company’s partner/ partners. These can be an independent agent/ manning agency, or an affiliated crew department, either in the inland or in a foreign country. It should be noted that in deciding the optimum choice, the company has to evaluate all factors presented in more detail in the above analysis. The advantages of outsourcing can be noticed in operational or strategic level, or even in both. As Lankford and Parsa 10
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(1999) allege, operational advantages usually provide for short-term trouble avoidance, while strategic advantages offer long-term contributions in maximising opportunities. Each decision regarding the organisation of HR functions creates different commitments for the company and engages investment in resources. Seen from this point of view, in-house development engages both decision management and decision control and demand investments in human resources and capital. In this case the company internalises the greatest part of relevant transactions and thus, undertakes the inherent risk. The company should be willing to undertake these costs only in case that a long run perspective is adopted. Internal outsourcing demands also investment in human resources and capital. It can be considered however as a diversification
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